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LearningoutcomesoftheUnit 19 Studentswillbeable to: definecrime explaindifferentclassificationsofcrimes (CriminalLawAct, 1967, target ofcrime) provide examplesofseriousandlessseriouscrimesanddefinethem explainthereasons for theexemptionsfromcriminalliability discuss some keypartsfromtheCroatianCriminalLawAct
Definitionofcrime…. A crime is anyactor omission (ofanact) thatviolatesthelawand is punishablebythe state. Crimes are consideredinjurious to society or thecommunity. Crimesinclude Felonies – more seriousoffences (murder, rape) Misdemeanours – minorcrimes(pettytheft, speeding). (Source:BriegerNick: Professional English, Penguin, 2006.)
BEFORE THE CRIMINAL LAW ACT FROM 1967 • INDICTABLE OFFENCES • Triable on indictment • in a Crown Court • (judge + jury) • SUMMARY OFFENCES • Triable summarily • in a Magistrates’ Court • (judge without a jury) CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES IN THE UK LAW treason misdemeanour (less serious crimes) felony (more serious Crimes) The distinction became unsatisfactory because some misdemeanours were more serious than certain felonies.
Examplesofseriouscriminaloffences… Felonies: ENGLISH CROATIAN murder(withmaliceaforethought) __________ manslaughter __________ rape ___________ arson ___________ burglary ___________ theft ___________ bigamy ___________
Examplesoflessseriouscriminaloffences… Misdemeanours: ENGLISH CROATIAN minorassaults __________ conspiracy __________ perjury ___________ blasphemy ___________ fraud ___________ variousroadtrafficoffences ___________
CLASSIFICATION AFTER THE TheCriminalLawActfrom 1967 • INDICTABLE OFFENCES • Triable in a Crown Court • (judge + jury) • SUMMARY OFFENCES • Triable in a Magistrates’ Court • (judge) • ARRESTABLE • OFFENCES • - Sentence is fixed • by law • Imprisonment for • 5 or more years • Arrest by anybody • without a warrant • OTHER INDICTABLE • OFFENCES • No power of • arrest NEW SITUATION arrestable offences other indictable offenes treason
CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE TARGET OF OFFENCE a) Offences against the State b) Offences against the person c) Offences against the property Findexamples for each group (book, p. 86)
ACTORS and ROLES IN A “CRIME STORY” The criminal / accused – commits a guilty act Assistingoffenders– assistthemaincriminal Personsguiltyofincitementto a crime PRESUMPTION OF INNOCENCE!!! (Theaccused is persumedinnocentuntilprovedbytheprosecutionin a court oflaw to beguilty.) The prosecutor – secures conviction - proves that the accused is guiltyofa crime
EXEMPTIONS FROM CRIMINAL LIABILITY a) something had deprived a personof his or her freewillandself-control (e.g. insanity, coercion or necessity) b) he or she is one oftheclassofpersonssubject to specialrules (immunityofforeignsovereignsanddiplomats, minorsunder ten years, etc.)
Whichtypeof a crime is it? • An attempt to use illegal force on another person is _____ • The unlawful killing of a person without malicious intent and therefore without premeditation is ______ • Any instance in which one party deceives or takes unfair advantage of another is ______ • The unlawful taking of another’s property using a dangerous weapon is _______ • The crime of breaking into a private home with the intention of committing a felony is ________ • Taking the property of another without right or permission is ___________
Answer the following questions. – PART 1 • What is a possibledefinition of crime? • Which are the two major groups of crimes? • Who is in charge of trying indictable offences? • What kind of offences are triable in a Magistrates’ Court? • Which legal document was the beginning of a new period in the classification of crimes? • How were indictable offences classified before 1967? • What was the difference between felony and misdemeanour before the Act?
Questions – PART 2 8. Why was this distinction unsatisfactory in more recent times? 9. What was the result of the new division, when the categories felony and misdemeanour were not good enough any more? 10. How can crime be divided according to its target? 11. What are the major tasks of the prosecution when dealing with a crime? 12. How should the accused be treated in terms of his guilt? 13. Who can be exempted from criminal liability? 14. Which offences are punishable according to special rules of law?
Read the following parts from the Croatian Criminal Law and compare with the English system. - Part I Članak 8. • (1) Kazneni postupak za kaznena djela pokreće Državno odvjetništvo u interesu Republike Hrvatske i svih njezinih građana. • (2) Iznimno za određena kaznena djela može se zakonom propisati da se kazneni postupak pokreće privatnom tužbom ili da Državno odvjetništvo pokreće kazneni postupak povodom prijedloga.
Part II - Children and criminal liability Članak 10. Kazneno se zakonodavstvo ne primjenjuje prema djetetu koje u vrijeme kad je počinilo kazneno djelo nije navršilo četrnaest godina života. Članak 11. Prema mladim počiniteljima kaznenih djela (maloljetne osobe i mlađe punoljetne osobe) primjenjuje se ovaj Zakon osim ako posebnim zakonom za mlade počinitelje nije drukčije propisano.
Translate the following definition of a guilty act. KAZNENO DJELO • Članak 25. • (1) Kazneno djelo može se počiniti činjenjem ili nečinjenjem. • (2) Kazneno djelo je počinjeno nečinjenjem ako je počinitelj koji je pravno obvezan spriječiti nastupanje zakonom opisane posljedice kaznenog djela to propustio učiniti, a takvo je propuštanje po djelovanju i značenju jednako počinjenju tog djela činjenjem.