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Shared Decision Making: The Hoy-Tarter Simplified Model. Question. Should you involve subordinates in the decision-making process? Natural systems --human relations Answer-- “Of Course!” Rational systems-scientific management Answer-- Only if they have expertise.
• Under what conditions should the leader involve subordinates in decision making?
• To what extent should subordinates be involved?
• How should the decision making group be structured and function?
• What is the role of the leader in participative leadership?
Do subordinates have a personal stake in the outcome?
Outside Zone of
Inside Zone of
Can you trust subordinates to make a decision in the best interest of the organization?
Thus there are three critical questions:
Do subordinates have a personal stake in the outcomes of the decision?
[The Relevance Question]
2. Do subordinates have the expertise to make a knowledgeable contribution?
[The Expertise Question]
3. Can you trust subordinates to make a decision in the best interest of the organization?
[The Trust Question]
Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative
Relevance? Yes Yes Yes No No
Expertise? Yes Yes No Yes No
Trust? Yes No Yes/No Yes/No N/A
Degree of Involvement
and Their Functions
Who is Leader Leader Leader Leader and Leader
Involved? and Group and Group and Group Selected
Nature of Group shares Group shares Group shares Individuals No subordinate
Involvement? information, information, information, provide data, involvement
analyzes and deliberates, analyzes and discuss, and
reaches and votes on recommends. recommend.
Who makes Group by Group by Leader with Leader with Leader Alone
the decision? Consensus Majority Rule Advice Advice
The integrator brings subordinates together for consensus decision-making. Here the task is to reconcile divergent opinions and positions.
The parliamentarian facilitates open communication by protecting the opinions of the
minority and leads through a democratic process to a group decision.
The educator reduces resistance to change by explaining and discussing with group
members the opportunities and constrains of the decisional issues.
The solicitor seeks advice from subordinate-experts. The quality of decisions is improved
As the administrator guides the generation of relevant information.
The director makes unilateral decisions in those instances where the subordinates have
no expertise or personal stake. Here the goal is efficiency.
Role Function Aim
Integrator Brings together divergent positions To achieve consensus
Parliamentarian Facilitates open discussion To support reflective deliberation
Educator Explains and discusses issues To assure acceptance of decisions
Solicitor Solicits advice from teachers To improve quality of decisions
Director Makes unilateral decisions To attain efficiency
Participative Decision Making
1. Situation? Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative
2. Involvement? Yes and extensive Yes but limited Occasionally Occasionally None
and limited and limited
3. Decision- Group Group Group Group Individual Unilateral
Making Consensus Majority Advisory Advisory Advisory
4. Role of Integrator Parliamentarian Educator Educator Solicitor Director