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Detonation nanodiamonds: problems and prospects. V.V. Danilenko Moscow vvdan@list.ru. Transient period in technology cycle of human civilization:. Microstructures → Nanostructures Microelectronics → Nanoelectronics

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detonation nanodiamonds problems and prospects

Detonation nanodiamonds:problems and prospects

V.V. Danilenko

Moscow

vvdan@list.ru

transient period in technology cycle of human civilization
Transient period in technology cycle of human civilization:
  • Microstructures → Nanostructures Microelectronics → Nanoelectronics
  • What determine Decisions and Priorities?
  • Market only or Scientific Forecast ?
  • No market ↔ no production ?
detonation parameters and phase diagram of nanocarbon v v danilenko fiz gor vzryva 2005 v 41 n 5
Detonation parameters and phase diagram of nanocarbonV.V. Danilenko. Fiz. Gor. Vzryva. 2005, V. 41, N. 5.

Detonation

Amorphization

Porosity

slide4

Scheme of explosive technology

Inert gas

Ice or watershell

Explosives:

Dry product collector

+

Hexogen

TNT

Wet product collector

Further acid purification

slide5

DND structure and Properties - DND nanoparticle - unique combination of superhard inert diamond core and highly active porous amorphous cover on core. - DND - polydispersional raw material due to differ conditions for DND synthesis in volume of detonation charge

slide6

Structureof nanodiamond particle

Spherical shape d = 2 - 8 nm

Surface functional groups and adsorbed water

Diamond core

amorphous carbon, sp3 → sp2 structuries

0.4 - 1 nm

slide7

Synthesis conditions and DND qualityConditions of synthesis: - Characteristics of a charge (HE structure, geometry, weight, initiation). - Environment surrounding a charge (gas, water, ice, metal, mix).Quality of the DND: - The maintenance of the DND in detonation carbon (the attitude sp3/sp2). - A degree of DND particles connectivity in strong units. - Quantity of not carbon impurity.

influence of detonation conditions on the quality of nanodiamonds
Influence of Detonation Conditions on the Quality of Nanodiamonds

Increase in Temperature, pressure, time, carbon concentration

dnd applications
DND Applications
  • sp3/sp2:Nanodiamonds-graphite……… 20 – 75 % Pure DND………………. ……… > 95%
  • Optimal contents in materials – 0,5 – 5%
  • Applications:

Motor oil, lubricates, electroplates, resin, polymers, alloys, ceramics, polishing, biology, medicine…

slide10
DND: paradoxical situation
  • Good research of properties,
  • it is found many applications,
  • possible market of DND is estimated in $300 bls.
  • Nevertheless market is not created.
  • Many small manufactories are closed finally or temporary (low profitableness).

Why?

market of dnd is not created on following causes
Market of DND is not created on following causes:
  • - no investors(big corporation or government)
  • - very high priceof DND
  • - dependence synthesis condition – DND qualityis

poorly investigated (synthesis without ashes)

- optimum DND qualityfor each application is not

found

- DND – polydispersion raw material – need treatments

- industrial technologies of gas-phase purification,

fractionation, strong units dispersion, modification are not developed

- as result - industrial samplesof materials and products with DND are not created and not tested.

proposals
Proposals
  • Use for industrial production of DND:
  • charges ≥ 20 kg, explosion under water in close pool (in heavy metal cover), laser initiation;
  • utilization of old ammunition under water in close pool;
  • Production three group of diamond powder:
  • - DND – 5 – 100 nms;
  • - micropowders – 0.1 – 600 μm;
  • - grindpowders – 0.6 – 1 mm.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • A number of not solved technological and marketing problems, braking industrial production and applications DND is analyzed.
  • It is offered:
  • - to synthesize simultaneously the DND and abrasive diamond powders by explosion of the big weight charge in a heavy metal cover under water in closed pool;
  • - utilization of old ammunition under water in closed pool;
  • V.V. Danilenko. Superhard Materials. 2010, N5