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April 29th, 2009 Wednesdays 6:30 - 9:15 p.m. Bryce Walker. Art 1010: Week #13 The Modern World 1800-1945. Things to discuss today. Exam #3 returned Art News? Modern World Activity Assignment #4 Handouts. Modern World. Items to be covered: Neoclassicism Romanticism Realism
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April 29th, 2009 Wednesdays 6:30 - 9:15 p.m. Bryce Walker Art 1010: Week #13 The Modern World 1800-1945
Things to discuss today ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker Exam #3 returned Art News? Modern World Activity Assignment #4 Handouts
Modern World ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker • Items to be covered: • Neoclassicism • Romanticism • Realism • Impressionism • Post-Impressionism • America in the 19th Century • Into the 20th Century- The Avant Garde • Fauvism and Expressionism • Cubism
Modern World ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker • Items to be covered: • Into the 20th Century- The Avant Garde • Fauvism and Expressionism • Cubism • Fantasy and Futurism • World War I and After: Dada and Surrealism • Between the Wars: Building New Societies
Goals and Objectives ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker • Learn the different styles of the Modern art world • Learn the influential artists during the Impressionist and Post-Impressionist eras. • Learn the unique and evolving styles of American art • Learn the different styles of the Avant-Garde art movement. • Learn the influential artists during and after the Avant Garde movement.
The Modern World 1800-1945 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker “The first national museum was the Louvre in Paris. Opened in 1793 during the fervor of the French Revolution, it placed the art hat had been the private property of the kings of France on public view in what used to be the royal residence. Like everything else that used to belong to aristocrats, art was now for everybody, but what kind of art did everybody want? This is where the main debate laid. “The changes of modernity occurred everywhere in Europe, but the debates that provoked in the visual arts played out most dramatically in France, especially in Paris.” (p. 505)
Neoclassicism Jacques Louis David- • David was the official painter to Napoleon. When Napoleon fell from power in 1815, David went into exile, but the Neoclassical style carried forward into the new century by one of his students, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Jean-Auguste Ingres • Inherited the view that great art can only be made from great subject matter, and that the greatest subject matter of all was history, including Classical mythology and biblical scences. “Jupiter and Thetis” Ingres, 1604 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 7
Romanticism ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker • Eugene Delacroix • He spent several months in Northern Africa drawing and painting. • Compared with cool perfection of Ingres’ careful drawing and glazed colors, Delacroix’s technique is freer and more painterly. • “Is not a style so much as a set of attitudes and characteristic subjects. The 18th century is sometimes known as the “Age of reason”, for its leading thinkers placed their faith in rationality, skeptical questioning, and scientific inquiry.” (p. 507) “Women of Algiers” Delacroix, 1834
Realism Gustave Courbet • Realism rose as a reaction against both Neoclassicism and Romanticism. • Realist artists like Courbet, sough to depict the everyday and the ordinary, rather than the historic, the heroic, or the exotic. • Courbet’s point is that “everyday activities, such as an artist working at his easel or peasants toiling in the fields, were fit subject matter for grand –scale art. “The Stonebreaker’s” Poussin, 1849 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 9
Impressionism EdouardManet • In a 19thcentury state-sponsored exhibition in France, artists submitted works. Since, the official jury tended to be conservative, they rejected Manet’s and many other paintings. So Manet and a group set up a “Salon des Refuses” (Refused art exhibition). • Through “Le Dejeuner surl’herbe” (Luncheon on the Grass), Manet teases works done by Titian and the like by portraying a female nude among clothed males. “Luncheon on the Grass” Manet, 1863 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 10
Impressionism Claude Monet • After Monet called one of his artworks “Impression Sunrise” a scornful art critic ridiculed the style by calling it Impressionism. The name stuck in the public imagination, and the artists largely accepted it. (Impressions of light and color on the eye) • With Impressionism, art moved outdoors thanks to the portable oil color in tubes, many of the Impressionists took their canvases, brushed, and paints outside to be part of the shifting light they wanted to depict. “Impression: Sunrise” Monet, 1874 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 11
Impressionism Pierre-Auguste Renoir • Instead of building a painting up from preliminary layers of drawing and modeling, Renoir began directly with paint, weaving individual brush strokes into an allover tapestry of colors that resolve into forms. • In “Le Moulin de la Galette”, Renoir captures a moment’s pleasure with flickering strokes of paint that record sensations of light, color, and movement. • Renoir would later adjust his style to create more solid figures and largely abandon modern life for “timeless” subjects. “Le Moulin de la Galette” Renoir, 1876 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 12
Impressionism Edgar Degas • Degas concerns were somewhat different from the rest of the Impressionists. He was not interested in painting outdoors, or in recording sensations of perception, and he was endlessly ingenious at finding subjects in contemporary life that allowed him to depict it. • Degas borrowed a Japanese technique of having a device (pillar or lamppost) interrupt the composition and block our view. Such interruptions also reflect Degas’ interest in photography, which lent itself naturally to cropped views. “Women at a Cafe, Evening” Degas, 1877 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 13
Post-Impressionism Paul Gauguin • Gaugin, who worked with an Impressionist style early in his career, expressed a spiritual meaning in his art. He moved to Tahiti were he painted most of his subject matter. He called this move an escape from the “disease of civilization.” • The next generation of artists admired many aspects of Impressionism, especially its bright palette and direct painting techniques. “Te Aa No Areois (The Seed of Areoi)” Gauguin, 1892 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 14
Post-Impressionism Georges Seurat • Seurat wanted to place Impressionism’s intuitive recording of optical sensations on a more scientific footing. His reading of color theories led him to develop the technique of Pointillism. • Seurat was the most faithful of painting modern life. He portrayed ordinary people enjoying their day off with ceremony and dignity. “Bathers at Asnieres” Seurat, 1884 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 15
Post-Impressionism Vincent Van Gogh • For most post-impressionist artists like Van Gogh, the industrialized modern world was not something that needed to be confronted but something that needed to be escaped. • Van Gogh, a Dutch artist, moved from Antwerp to Paris in 1886 but only stayed for 2 years. He then moved to a small rural town in Southern France called Arles, where he painted the landscape, people, and things closest to him. “Starry Night” Van Gogh, 1889 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 16
Post-Impressionism Paul Cezanne • In contrast to Gauguin’s need to travel, Cezanne found everything he needed within walking distance of his home in the south of France. • He felt that what made painting great in the past was structure and order. • His goals were to use the painting stroke to paint something more solid and durable. Also to paint from nature and find in it order and clarity. He was influenced by Poussin’s “The Ashes of Phiokin” . “Mount Sainte-Victoire” Cezanne, 1902 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 17
America in the 19th Century Mary Cassatt • The first notable women Impressionist, Cassatt received her artistic training in America. She later moved to Paris and remained there. • Her natural inclination drew her senses from daily life, especially intimate domestic scenes of mother and children, a world men rarely depicted in art. • “I work with absolute independence without concern for the opinion of a jury.” Cassatt “The Boating Party” Cassatt, 1893-94 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 18
Into the 20th Century: The Avant Garde • Henri Matisse • AvantGarde was originally a military term, referring to the detachment of soldiers that went first into battle. Henri Matisse claims original membership in this group. He took the liberation of color further with Fauvism. • Fauvism- freed from its descriptive role, color could be used as an independent expressive element. • Expressionism- any style where the artist’s subjective feelings take precedence over objective observation. “The Joy of Life” Matisse, 1905-06 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 19
Into the 20th Century: The Avant Garde Pablo Picasso • Picasso, a Spanish painter, reduced the role of color to a minimum in order to concentrate on the problem of representing form in space. • In breaking with Western art conventions that reached back to ancient Greece and Rome, Picasso looked for inspiration ancient traditions, the merging of figure and ground, and fragmenting of the figures. • Cubism- a fragmenting a figures into shapes with lined edges. “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” Picasso, 1907 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 20
World War I and After: Dada and Surrealism Marcel Duchamp • Duchamp created the term “ready-mades” which probed the border between art and real life. A ready made is a work of art that the artist has not made but designated. • The movement of Dada was anti everything. Anti art, anti middle-class society, anti politicians, anti good manners, anti business-as-usual, anti all that had brought about war. • Dada embraced as many different types of “anti” themed art as there were artists. “The Fountain” Duchamp, 1917 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 21
World War I and After: Dada and Surrealism Salvador Dali • A movement that grew out of Dada was Surrealism, which was formulated in Paris in the 1920s. Like Dada, Surrealism was not a style but a way of life. • The Surrealists appreciated the logic of dreams, the mystery of the unconscious, and the lure of the bizarre, the irrational, the incongruous, and the marvelous. • Dali's art, offers a fascinating paradox: His rendering of forms could not possibly be real. Perhaps in his fantasy, his dream, is to triumph once and for all over time. “The Persistence of Time” Dali, 1931 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 22
Between the Wars: Building New Societies Piet Mondrian • Mondrian thought of his canvases as places where we could turn to stabilize ourselves and restore our calm. He also believed that no art would be necessary in an environment where we people would be surrounded by rational beauty and thus become balanced themselves. “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” Picasso, 1907 ART1010- Intro to Art, Bryce Walker 23