Anatomy of the hand and arm - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Anatomy of the hand and arm
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Anatomy of the hand and arm

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  1. Anatomy of the hand and arm

  2. Nail growth • Nails are protective structures on the end joints of fingers and toes which develop from the skin/Epidermis. • Each nail is a curved sheet of protein called keratin (the epidermal cells have died and hardened, due to this protein being added. This process is called keratinisation • The cells grow from the matrix (mitosis)where they die and harden (keratinisation)the matrix forms the shape and thickness of the nail. • The cuticle protects the nail from infection. • Average weekly growth of nails is 1mm. From the matrix to the free edge it can take up to 6 months. • Main causes of nail defects/poor growth are : Mechanical damage, illness and infections, medication, poor diet, age –cellular regeneration declines with age and poor circulation

  3. Anatomy of the nail Cuticle Free edge Nail Plate Lunula Nail wall

  4. Nail Anatomy

  5. Anatomy of the Nail Cuticle – a barrier around the nail plate to protect the matrix and prevent bacteria from entering. Free edge – the white part of the nail which grows up and is seen over the top of the finger when the palm is facing you Nail plate – the tough protective coating of cells on top of the nail bed , which we then paint with nail polishes. Lunula – often called the half moon its the visible part of the matrix found at the base .

  6. Anatomy of the nail

  7. Bones

  8. Bones of the arm and hand

  9. Bones of the wrist (carpals)

  10. Muscles

  11. Muscles of the arm and hand

  12. Muscles of the lower arm and hand • These group of muscles are collectively known as : • Flexors • Extensors •

  13. Brachialis Flexor Reticulum Flexes forearm at elbow

  14. Brachioradialis

  15. PronatorTeres

  16. Extensor digitorum

  17. Palmaris longus

  18. Flexor digitorumsuperficialis

  19. Flexor carpiradialis

  20. Flexor carpiulnaris

  21. Extensor carpiradialislongus

  22. Flexor pollicislongus

  23. Opponenspollicis This muscle form the padded part of the palm, close to the thumb

  24. Blood supply to arm and hand

  25. Lymphatic vessels to the arm and hand For you to research The sub –clavicular glands are situated beneath the clavicle, which would be here, if they lie above the clavicla they are known as supra-clavicular nodes. Supratrochlear glands

  26. Useful links for anatomy of hand and arm

  27. Anatomy of the foot and leg

  28. Bones of the leg and foot

  29. Bones of the leg and foot

  30. Muscles of the leg

  31. Blood supply to leg and foot For you to research • Internal iliac artery is located towards the pelvis and buttocks • Profundafemoris vessels are located by the hip joint

  32. Lymphatic vessels to leg and foot The lymphatic system is designed to carry fats, fight infection and distribute water. For you to research: Subinguinal glands, lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs superficial and deep.