Nail growth • Nails are protective structures on the end joints of fingers and toes which develop from the skin/Epidermis. • Each nail is a curved sheet of protein called keratin (the epidermal cells have died and hardened, due to this protein being added. This process is called keratinisation • The cells grow from the matrix (mitosis)where they die and harden (keratinisation)the matrix forms the shape and thickness of the nail. • The cuticle protects the nail from infection. • Average weekly growth of nails is 1mm. From the matrix to the free edge it can take up to 6 months. • Main causes of nail defects/poor growth are : Mechanical damage, illness and infections, medication, poor diet, age –cellular regeneration declines with age and poor circulation
Anatomy of the nail Cuticle Free edge Nail Plate Lunula Nail wall
Anatomy of the Nail Cuticle – a barrier around the nail plate to protect the matrix and prevent bacteria from entering. Free edge – the white part of the nail which grows up and is seen over the top of the finger when the palm is facing you Nail plate – the tough protective coating of cells on top of the nail bed , which we then paint with nail polishes. Lunula – often called the half moon its the visible part of the matrix found at the base .
Muscles of the lower arm and hand • These group of muscles are collectively known as : • Flexors • Extensors • http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/muscularsystem/menu/menu.htmls
Brachialis Flexor Reticulum Flexes forearm at elbow
Opponenspollicis This muscle form the padded part of the palm, close to the thumb
Lymphatic vessels to the arm and hand For you to research The sub –clavicular glands are situated beneath the clavicle, which would be here, if they lie above the clavicla they are known as supra-clavicular nodes. Supratrochlear glands
Blood supply to leg and foot For you to research • Internal iliac artery is located towards the pelvis and buttocks • Profundafemoris vessels are located by the hip joint
Lymphatic vessels to leg and foot The lymphatic system is designed to carry fats, fight infection and distribute water. For you to research: Subinguinal glands, lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs superficial and deep.