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Boiler - & WH labelling and European directive EuP

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  1. ECODESIGN OF EUP, Lot 2, BRUSSELS, 8.7.2008 Ecodesign of EuP Dedicated Water Heaters Boiler- & WH labelling and European directive EuP Draft proposal NOx –Emission Limit Values EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-general for Energy and Transport Unit D3, Energy Efficiency

  2. Commission draft proposal • From 01/01/2013 Emissions of NOx from ..Water heaters ..shall be subject to the following limit (where applicable): • NOx; 20 ppm, except 40 ppm for products with at least 30% renewable input. This limit shall be after allowing for nitrogen already in the fuel (or when tested with nitrogen free fuel).” • Possible Variants (above remains the preferred option, IA study to advise): • Raising the non renewables limit by around 25% to 25 ppm. • A limit of 70 mg/kW gas, 105mg/kW oil proposed by EHI • A delay of implementation limited to small (wall hung) oil boilers 2

  3. Why same limits for WH and (combi-)boilers? • Principle: • instantaneous combi (summer mode)= GIWH (or OIWH)* • storage combi (summer mode) = GSWH (or OSWH) • Test method envisaged: • Identical (steady state test at full load) • Urgency: GIWH and GSWH are today low-end market segments and contribute disproportionally to NOx. No technical reason for that and they can/should be upgraded to higher level, comparable to combi or even better. • Message: Rethink and upgrade GIWH and GSWH. They might well be (part of) the better alternative to the current combi concept. GIWH= Gas-fired Instantaneous Water Heater (OIWH is Oil-fired); GSWH= Gas-fired Storage Water Heater (OSWH is Oil-fired)

  4. >70 kW >70 kW <70 kW <70 kW 2013 ‘18 OFTEC (UK) boilers: Oil 2013/2018 EG: Gas 2013 EHI boilers Gas/Oil 2013 EG: Oil 2013 = >30% share renewables NOx limits: Misc. Proposals (in mg/kWh) EHI for WH: 200 mg/kWh Commission proposals in mg/kWh (20 ppm=ca. 35 mg/kWh) NGO: >50% renewables

  5. Why NOx limits ? • Ecodesign not just energy: gas-/oil/ electric boilers & WH contribute 10% to EU-NOx • NOx important for smog, acidification (clean air) and plays a role in climate change (ozone)  NEC directive, Stockholm Treaty, AAQ directive, etc. • EU behindin legislation (California in front). If EU wants to compete globally, the legislation should reflect that. • The proposed limits are ambitious (current best) but should be feasible throughout within 4-5 years with extra R&D (2013) • CO safety limits are already in standards (but test standards should be updated asap!). No need to go further until new standards are there. • NOx policy limits (in ppm) are 25 times more stringent than CO in EU Directives.(25 times “more important”)

  6. NO2 in EU 2003 http://www.knmi.nl/~eskes/folkert/meteorologica_05.html

  7. NO2 World 2003

  8. NO2 China 2001

  9. NOx: Fighting smog and acidification 1296 + Business as Usual 1056 936 14 kt SOx eq/a in 2020 961 922 Realistic 665 555 514 631 223 102 2025 2020 2010 1990 193 kt SOx eq/a in 2025 Impact EU: Acidification (in kt SOx eq./a) [ EU-15 total in 2005: 10.945 kt SOx equivalent, from 9015 kt Nox (*0,7) and 4635 kt SO2] ] ECODESIGN OF EUP, Lot 1 & 2, BRUSSELS, 29.2.2008 9

  10. Why “NOx-bonus”? Why Nitrogen-free? • NOx-bonus (+20 ppm) is consistent with system approach: Rating of the NOx of the whole boiler installation (including renewables). • If the fossil-fuel fired boiler is just a back-up and may not even (or little) be used in normal operation, it is not advantageous for the environment nor economical for the user to require the most stringent limits. • Nitrogen-free: The nitrogen in the fuel cause a substantial and often unavoidable part of the NOx emissions (ca. 28-35 mg/kWh). This is outside the scope of the boiler-design and manufacturers of boilers that use nitrogen-containing fuel are not responsible for that part of the NOx emissions. (e.g. compare “low-S”)

  11. NOx formation: 3 types Thermal NO post-flame, high temperature Prompt NO fuel-rich flame, low temperature Fuel NO Oxidation of N in fuel Fuel NO not responsibility of boiler industry

  12. World NOx limits gas-fired boilers =also dedicated water heaters

  13. World NOx limits oil-fired boilers =also dedicated water heaters

  14. EU Car emission limit values NOx and CO

  15. Compare cars NOx (in mg/kWh) EuP draft  2013 Euro 6  2014 133 70- 105 100 35- 70 mg NOx/kWh mg NOx/kWh diesel gasoline diesel gas with or without renewables Explosion motor Dynamic test Combustion Steady-state test

  16. Power plants NOx • LCP-directive* NOx-limits for new plants after 2003: • Most gas turbines < 43 mg/kWh (ca. 25 ppm) • Gas > 300 MW < 85 mg/kWh**; 50-300 MW <ca. 130 mg/kWh; • Oil > 100 MW < 170 mg/kWh; 50-100 MW < 340 mg/kWh • 2004 example: GE “Frame 9FB” gas-fired steam turbine (combined cycle) 412 MW, 58 % efficiency on NCV (lower heating value). Dry Low NOx2+ combustion system  NOx emissions less than 43 mg/kWh. (=25 ppm, installation Milan(IT) 2004.) *= Large Combustion Plants directive 2001/80/EC **=conversion 100 mg/m3 = 85 mg/kWh

  17. Remember.. EU should be ahead!