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Electric Vehicle Integration into the Grid ISM 270, January 27 , 2011 Geoff Ryder SAP Labs, LLC. 1. Notes on ISM 270 Homework, Discussion. Electric Vehicles: Demand Management; Grid and Battery Asset Management; Billing for Networked EV Business Models.

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electric vehicle integration into the grid ism 270 january 27 2011 geoff ryder sap labs llc

Electric Vehicle Integration into the GridISM 270, January 27, 2011Geoff Ryder SAP Labs, LLC

1

  • Notes on ISM 270 Homework, Discussion
  • Electric Vehicles: Demand Management; Grid and Battery Asset Management; Billing for Networked EV Business Models.
  • Agent-Based Grid Simulation Project

2

3

  • Notes on Programming Tools
safe harbor statement
Safe Harbor Statement

This document is intended to outline future product direction, and is not a commitment by SAP to deliver any given code or functionality. Any statements contained in this document that are not historical facts are forward-looking statements. SAP undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are subject to various risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from expectations. The timing or release of any product described in this document remains at the sole discretion of SAP. This document is for informational purposes and may not be incorporated into a contract. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, and they should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions.

sap s utilities solution map

Suppliers & Partners

Generation

Transmission & Distribution

Meter Operation

Retail & Services

Customers & Channels

Asset Life Cycle Management

Supply Operations

Resource Management

Meter Reading Services

Energy Capital Management

Selling of Energy and Services

Customer Service Management

Billing of Energy and Services

Customer Financial Management

Collaborative Services & Intercompany Data Exchange

Enterprise Management & Support

Analytics

Strategic Enterprise Management

Financial Analytics

Operations Analytics

Workforce Analytics

Financials

Financial Supply Chain Management

Financial Accounting

Management Accounting

Corporate Governance

Human Capital Management

Talent Management

Workforce Process Management

Workforce Deployment

Corporate Services

Travel Management

Environment, Health and Safety

Incentive and Commission Management

Real Estate Management

Operations Support

Life-Cycle Data Management

Project and Portfolio Management

Quality Management

Indirect Procurement

Global Trade Services

SAP’s Utilities Solution Map
delivering the business case sustainability is an it integration challenge
Delivering the Business CaseSustainability is an IT integration challenge

Sustainability Strategy

Sustainability Strategy

OperationalRisk Mgt

On Device

  • SustainabilityReporting
  • BusinessObjects Explorer
  • EHS Analytics

Orchestration

MIIManufacturingIntegration

Resource Productivity

Sustainability Strategy

OperationalRisk Mgt

Sustainable Consumption

Sustainable Consumption

Raj Valame, energy management for manufacturing

On Demand+ Add-on

AMI Integrationfor Utilities

  • SustainabilityPerformance Mgt
  • EHS Mgt

CarbonImpact

  • Global BatchMgt
  • ReachCompliance

Resource Productivity

Resource Productivity

Resource Productivity

Sustainable Consumption

Sustainable Consumption

On Premise

Resource Productivity

  • SupplyChain Mgt
  • Transpor-tation Mgt
  • SupplierRelationship Mgt
  • RecyclingAdministration
slide7
Palo Alto Energy Efficiency Showcase:$2M Investment in Clean Tech http://www.cnbc.com/id/15840232/?video=1707896067&play=1

Dec. 9, 2010

All Projects

Tele-presence

LED, Light Controls

Solar PV Panels

EVs and Chargers

COIL DC Conversion

video better place battery swapping operation timed
Video: Better Place Battery Swapping Operation, Timed

Here are links that describe our EV-related deployments at SAP Palo Alto:

http://www.cnbc.com/id/15840232/?video=1707896067&play=1

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csV1W75hhZ0

slide9

Electric Vehicles: Compare costs per mile

Approximation: 1 kWh = 4 miles of driving distance

Nissan Leaf: approx. 25 kWh battery pack = 100 miles before recharging

Case: my Nissan Maxima, 20 mpg, 15 gallon gas tank, $3 per gallon

One fill-up is $45, and I can travel 300 miles.

Cost per mile is $45 / 300 = $0.15 per mile

Case: a new Nissan Leaf. Electricity costs $0.1 per kWh.

One fill-up is $0.1 * 25 = $2.50, and I can travel 100 miles.

Cost per mile is $2.50 / 100 = $0.025 per mile!

charging station capacity
Charging Station Capacity

Home charging unit

Say your EV has a 25 kWh battery pack. To charge it all the way from zero:

Level 1 Charger: 120 V AC, 14 A

= 15 hours to charge

Level 2 Charger: 240 V AC, 14 A

= 7.5 hours

Level 3 Charger (not available for most homes): 480 V DC, 125 A

= 42 minutes

roll out schedule for plug in electric vehicles
Roll-out Schedule for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

BEV

PHEV

Saturn VUE

BYD in Europe

Chevrolet Volt

Fisker Karma

Kia LPG/Electric

EPRI, Eaton, Ford Trouble Truck

Subaru Stella

Chrysler

Nissan LEAF

Smart for Two

2009

2010

2011

2012

BMW Mini E

ZENN City

BYD EV in China

Mitsubishi iMiEV

Toyota Prius

Ford Escape

Hyundai

Tesla Roadster

Aptera

BYD F3DM

Tesla Roadster

Nissan Leaf

PriusPHEV

Hyundai i10

slide14

New Electric Vehicles from China

Shandong Baoya Vehicle Co.: the Baoya Electric Car

150 km per charge

Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co. BE701

200 km per charge

Changan Automotive Group (Ford partner)

BenBen electric conversion (Canada)

Haifei Auto Group: Saibao, 160 km per charge

revenue impact of evs

$

Revenue Impact of EVs

Electric Power Utilities

Automobile OEMs

EV-Driven Electricity Sales

ICE Car Sales and Service

New Capital Investments

EV Sales and Service

New Distribution-Level

Infrastructure, Programs for EV Owners

Current US Vehicle Fleet: ~ 246M

US EV Sales, 2015: ~ 1M?

electric vehicles it s all about the battery

Utility

Electric Vehicles:It’s All About the Battery

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle

Car

Manufacturer

OEM

Gas station

Weak relationships

after purchase

Electric Power Utility

OEM

--Set up home charging station

--Billing relationship for fuel

--Demand management, load shaping

--Grid asset management

--Needs OEM-authorized service

--OEM responsible for battery asset management

large scale ev infrastructure business models

Utility

Utility

Utility

Large-Scale EV Infrastructure Business Models

Turnkey(e.g. BetterPlace)

Utility Centric

(e.g. RWE)

Charge Station Centric

(e.g. Coulomb Tech)

Car

Manufacturer

Car

Manufacturer

Car

Manufacturer

Power supply

& Billing

Demand mgmt

Demand mgmt

Demand mgmt

Power supply

& Billing (opt.)

Power supply

  • Public and privatecharging stations by multiple operators
  • Electricitydistributor
  • Charge stations
  • Billing
  • Electricity Distributor
  • Own battery &charge station

Subscribe

$/ mile

Pay

utility bill

Pay to

charge

Battery rental

Pay

utility bill

Charge

Sell car

w/ battery(or lease)

Sell car

w/o battery

Sell car

w/ battery

(or lease)

video better place battery swapping operation timed1
Video: Better Place Battery Swapping Operation, Timed

URL: Better Place battery swapping demo, Yokohama

slide23

Utility

1

  • Demand Management

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle

Car

Manufacturer

OEM

Gas station

Weak relationships

after purchase

Electric Power Utility

OEM

--Set up home charging station

--Billing relationship for fuel

--Demand management, load shaping

--Grid asset management

--Needs OEM-authorized service

--OEM responsible for battery asset management

the impact of electric vehicle charging on the grid
The Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Grid
  • Problem: can older poletop transformers in our service territory handle the new load?
  • (Research by ArindamMaitra, EPRI, 2010)
solution manage ev charging demand through time of use pricing tou
Solution: Manage EV Charging Demand through Time of Use Pricing (TOU)

MW

MW

Shift

demand

Hour of day

Hour of day

sap and its partners enable utility centric ev charging
SAP and its partners enable utility-centric EV charging

Utility Bill

Billing

The charging station is a sub-meter to the smart meter. The AMI channel for the station is mapped to a device in the SAP billing system.

…through AMI, bypassing the smart meter, but using the same protocol.

…using a proprietary protocol to the network operation center of the charging station operator, and from there directly submitting data to MDUS.

…directly from the charging station operator to SAP billing software.

1

MDUS

3

AMI

2

2

Charging

Station

Operator

4

4

4

Business or Residence

Building Power

Control Unit

Electric Vehicle

Charging Station

3

Smart Meter:

1

Other electricity loads

slide30

Utility-centric EVSE deployments are taking place in the midst of the rollout of the smart grid.Role of eMobility companies in the smart grid ecosystem:

Distributed generation and storage

Networked vehicles

Grid optimization

Demand response

Smart meter services

Communication layer: HW, SW, Control

Image credit: GTM Research. Downloaded 10/13/2010

http://www.greentechmedia.com/images/wysiwyg/research-blogs/taxonomy-large.jpg

ev owners get tou pricing signals through vehicle telematics apps
EV Owners Get TOU Pricing Signals through Vehicle Telematics Apps

Announced at CES, 2011

Ford Focus Electric, due out in late 2011

With Microsoft, Inc.: MyFord Mobile

Software automatically charges the vehicle during off-peak hours, when utility rates are cheapest.

Credits:

Detroit Edison, Inc.

Automatiks, Inc.

Telematics Detroit Conference, 2010

slide32

Utility

2

  • Battery and Grid Asset Management

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle

Car

Manufacturer

OEM

Gas station

Weak relationships

after purchase

Electric Power Utility

OEM

--Set up home charging station

--Billing relationship for fuel

--Demand management, load shaping

--Grid asset management

--Needs OEM-authorized service

--OEM responsible for battery asset management

slide33

P

P

S

S

S

O

O

2601a Bryant St

2601b Bryant St

T

P

2635 Bryant St

S

S

S

P

2645 Bryant St

E

2650 Bryant St

File

View

Help

Tools

E

2660 Bryant St

E

2665 Bryant St

E

2675 Bryant St

Block view 3:21PM

Bryant St / 24th – 25th

San Francisco, CA 94110

Electric Vehicle Management

Transformer

Public Charging Station2601a Bryant St

Model: ABC 45c

Year: 2009

Last maintenance: 9/12/09

Next maintenance: 10/19/10

Usage profile

Charging Stations

asset management of electrified vehicle infrastructure

Utilities

Service providers

Service providers

Asset management of electrified vehicle infrastructure
  • There will be a multitude of ownership and lease models for charging stations with the installation and maintenance typically sub-contracted to local service providers

Charging

StationOperators

Extensions to

SAP AssetManagement

Vehicle Manufacturer

On-demand Asset Management Hub

Home

Office

Public - City

Public - Corporate

Other

slide35

Utility

3

  • Billing for Networked EV Business Models

Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle

Car

Manufacturer

OEM

Gas station

Weak relationships

after purchase

Electric Power Utility

OEM

--Set up home charging station

--Billing relationship for fuel

--Demand management, load shaping

--Grid asset management

--Needs OEM-authorized service

--OEM responsible for battery asset management

billing and pricing need to accommodate heterogonous technologies and business models

PG&E

PG&E

Billing and pricing need to accommodate heterogonous technologies and business models

Utility Supplier

ChargingNetworkOperator

Charge Location /

Operator

Office

Home

Charge Station

Daily daytime recharge

Nightly recharge

Ad-hoc recharge

ID

ID

ID

End User

Customer relationship

Battery charging

Billing relationship

cebit demo march 2010 sap enables consolidated billing for emobility
CeBIT demo, March, 2010: SAP Enables Consolidated Billing for eMobility

Utility company #2: a separate utility that owns the charging station

Utility company #1: the EV driver’s

home utility

SAP server,

Palo Alto, CA

Webtech server, Canada

Coulomb server, Campbell, CA

Equipment at the CeBIT conference floor: the networked console of an EV, from Webtech, and a networked charging station, from Coulomb

simple roi for one charging station for a small business one networked pedestal mount evse costs 4k
Simple ROI for one charging station, for a small business. One networked pedestal-mount EVSE costs $4K.

+5

+4

+2

+3

+1 Year

+6

1K dollars

  • With no public subsidy, the charging station must generate ~$1000 per year in revenue or more for the investment to have a positive net present value (NPV). With public subsidy for 50% of total cost  ~$500 per year
  • Options for revenue:
    • (1) Reselling utility company electricity  revenue sharing agreement with EVSE network operator and utility
    • (2) Charging more to park by the EVSE (priority classes, fleet discounts?)
    • (3) Additional sales volume from higher customer traffic or longer customer stays
    • (4) Providing other services for, e.g., municipal government
    • (5) Claiming “low-carbon fuel credits” for electricity sold
    • (6) Other types of revenue sharing with EVSE network operator
slide40
Pricing structures for electrical fuel, considering models from the utility, telecom, airline and oil & gas industries

Billing

Telecom

Gas Stations

Fleet

Tradi-tionalUtilities

Pre-Pay

Open for discus-sion

CreditDebit

Airline PricingAirlines are another industry with sophisticated pricing models and a service/product with similar characteristics to electricity.

Overbooking flights is an particular interesting strategy for maximizing utilization of capacity.

Cash

Tiered

Rate

Price based on volume per period, e.g. 10c for the first 10 kWh, 15c for 10kWh – 20 kWh

  • Time-of-usePrice based on time of use, e.g. 10c for off-peak/ nights & weekends, 25c for peak / daytime

Flat

Rate

Unlimited use of service, e.g. unlimited text messages or nation-wide calls

Servicelevelprice based on service level agreement, e.g. $29.99 for 512kB upload / 6 Mb download speed

Real-timemarket-based prices, e.g. gasoline prices related to oil prices

sap s sybase mcommerce solutions singtel mobilepay
SAP’s Sybase mcommerce solutions: SingTel MobilePay

Insert subhead here as a full sentence at 18 point font, bold

examples of vehicle telematics differentiated service offerings for ev drivers
Examples of vehicle telematics: differentiated service offerings for EV drivers

Factors influencing prices

  • Regulations on EVSE ownership, use, business models
  • Contracts by type of use:
    • Commuter
    • Recreation
    • Postal service
    • Small business delivery
    • Private or public buses
    • Service trucks (e.g., utilities)
    • Public services (e.g. police)
    • Taxis
  • Type of communications, and intermediaries
    • SMS message
    • display screen in the car
    • smart phone
slide43

Standards for EV Communication:

Security? Privacy?

EVCP Protocol Stack

Business and Technology Issues

Application-Level Protocol

  • Authentication / Security / Privacy
    • X.509 certificates (certificate authority, when issued and by whom)
    • Security on both sides of transaction
    • Privacy equivalent to existing fueling models (e.g. cash / credit / debit payment at gas station)
  • Identity data
    • VIN number
    • (universal) utility ID
    • ...
  • Protocol Categories
    • Billing protocol
    • Vehicle battery charging protocol
    • Vehicle sensor data protocol
    • Vehicle services delivery protocol (e.g. POS services)
    • Vehicle diagnostics information protocol
  • Protocol Uniformity
    • Same protocols for all charging infrastructure (residential, standalone, private, workplace, etc.) ?

XML

HTTP, HTTPS

TCP/IP

WiMAX ®

Cellular (GPRS,EDGE ®)

Bluetooth ® 2.0, 3.0

WiFi ®

Zigbee ®

Other wireless standards

Hard-wired interface

slide44
Trading LCFS credits will generate additional revenues.It requires separate accounting of electricity used for transportation

LCFS credits for $$$

LCFS Markets

It is still under debate which entity can claim the revenues generated from LCFS credits, candidates include utilities, vehicle manufacturers, and car owners

Implications for AMI and Accounting Solutions

  • Metering of transportation used electricity, e.g. sub-metering
  • Dual data record management through complete AMI infrastructure
  • Metering and accounting of non-residential, transportation-used electricity
  • Create account for transportation-used electricity, link to trading sub-system and financial accounting system (after LCFS are being sold)

Sub-Meter

(transportation use)

Smart Meter

(residential use)

conclusions next steps contact geoff ryder@sap com
Conclusions, Next Steps Contact: geoff.ryder@sap.com

1

  • EV Demand Management
  • Time of Use Pricing, through AMI and Vehicle Telematics.
  • Call for innovation: driver communications, demand response...

2

  • Grid and Battery Asset Management
  • Through existing asset management platforms.
  • Call for innovation: security, privacy of EV drivers’ personal information...

3

  • Billing for Networked EV Business Models
  • Time of Use Pricing, through AMI and Vehicle Telematics.
  • Call for innovation: new networked business models + revenue streams to make infrastructure deployment more profitable, and to lower costs...