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“ Assessing Bacterial Accumulation in Artemia salina for Use in the Rearing of Yellow Perch”. Dawn Turney St. Marys of the Mills School, Laurel, MD UMCES Sea Grant Summer Research Fellow 2003 Dr. Andy Lazur Associate Professor/Extension Aquaculture Specialist

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assessing bacterial accumulation in artemia salina for use in the rearing of yellow perch

“Assessing Bacterial Accumulation in Artemia salina for Use in the Rearing of Yellow Perch”

Dawn Turney

St. Marys of the Mills School, Laurel, MD

UMCES Sea Grant Summer Research Fellow 2003

Dr. Andy Lazur

Associate Professor/Extension Aquaculture Specialist

Horn Point Laboratory, Cambridge, MD

slide3

Injecting yellow perch with an egg ripening hormone in order to encourage spawning

Testing water quality parameters in the Tuckahoe River where quality yellow perch eggs have been found

slide4

Yellow Perch Project Background

  • Principal Investigators: Dr. Andy Lazur, Dr. Bill Van Heukelem. Graduate Research Assistant: Mark Rath
  • Off-Season Spawning Trial of Yellow Perch Perca flavescens.
    • Fish are divided into four groups and isolated into rooms where temperature and photoperiod are controlled
    • Seasons are accelerated to try to achieve four spawns per year instead of the normal single spawn
    • Spawning was successful but problems arose with egg quality and development and larval (“fry”) survival.
slide5

Bacterial loading in Artemia cultures

    • Used different hatching and treatment methods to try to identify a way to reduce the amount of bacteria found in Artemia detritus
    • Monitored Artemia mortality rates over time
    • Isolated and quantified types of bacteria found in different treatments
slide6

Methods used in Artemia Bacterial Loading study

  • Five treatments with two replicates per treatment
  • Six trials
    • First two trials were test runs to determine the best techniques and methodology
    • Four final trials conducted to complete replicates
  • Treatments used:
    • Natural Hatch (NH)
    • NH + Oxytetracycline
    • NH + Potassium Permanganate
    • Decapsulated Hatch (DH)
    • DH + Oxytetracycline
slide7

Methods Continued

  • Cultures were treated and monitored over a 24 hour period for changes in mortality, then collected
  • Determined wet weight of 100 micron mesh over a sieve
  • Poured treatments through mesh to collect detritus and bacterial accumulation
  • Obtained weight of detritus and bacterial accumulation
  • Cultured bacterial residue on soy agar petri dishes for identification
  • Fixed and enumerated bacterial cultures
slide8

Conclusion: A general trend can be seen, however trials have not been completed, therefore no definite conclusions can be made.

slide9

Classroom Project

“The effect of abiotic factors on hatching and mortality rates of Artemia”

Grade Level 6-8

Major Emphasis: Biology, Microbiology, Environmental Science

Major Curriculum Area: Science

Related Curriculum Area: Math

Dawn Turney

St. Marys of the Mills

Laurel, MD

slide10

Classroom Project Components

Objective

Problem/Question

Hypothesis

5E Model

slide11

Objectives

  • Students will:
  • Learn to use a compound microscope
  • Identify, observe, and describe Artemia salina
  • Define and give examples of abiotic factors that impact water quality
  • Gain an understanding of pH
  • Discover and describe how water quality impacts aquatic organisms
  • Tie observations made in the classroom to issues related to the Chesapeake Bay
slide12

Problem/Question

How do abiotic factors such as pH, temperature, light, salinity, and contaminants effect the hatching rate and mortality of aquatic organisms?

Hypothesis

Students will design their own experiment and form their own hypothesis based on previously presented material. An example might be, “Artemia will hatch more quickly when more salt is added to the water.”

slide13

5E Model

An Approach to Enhance Scientific Investigation in the Classroom

Engagement: Grab the students' attention and stimulate their thinking

Exploration: Students think, plan, investigate, and organize collected information

Explanation:Students analyze their exploration

Extension: Students expand and solidify their understanding of the concept & apply it to real world situations

Evaluation:Scoring tools developed by the teacher and students to target what students must know

slide14

Engagement

  • Grab the students attention and stimulate their thinking
  • View
    • dehydrated cysts, hydrated cysts, and live Artemia using a compound microscope. Observe and describe shape of cysts and the anatomy and movements of live Artemia
  • Scavenger hunt
    • for related information. Example questions may be: What is pH? When might the pH of water be lower? What is salinity? Describe the habitat where Artemia can be found in nature. Have other aquatic organisms been effected by the condition of the water? What are they? How have they been effected?
    • Possible Sources: 1. Web sites 2. Text Books 3. Newspapers/ Magazines 4. Library Books
slide15

Exploration

Students think, plan, investigate, and organize collected information

“THINK, PAIR, SHARE”

THINK-Students will brainstorm on their own several problems they would like to investigate and ways to design an experiment in order to test their problem. (Suggested topics may be: the effect of: pH, temperature, light, salinity, fertilizer, oil, eroded soil, on the rate of hatch or on live Artemia.)

PAIR- Students will discuss their ideas with other students at their lab table and decide on a problem, hypothesis and an experimental design.

SHARE - Lab table groups will share their work with the class. Class will offer compliments and constructive criticism/ suggestions for improvement of project designs.

slide16

Explanation

  • Students analyze their exploration
  • Analyze data in groups and as a class
  • Graph data (what type of graph is best to use?)
  • Tables and graphs displayed and discussed
  • Give an explanation for the results found in each experiment
slide17

Extension

  • Students expand and solidify their understanding of the
  • concept & apply it to real world situations
  • Research the health of a nearby water body.
  • Invite experts (such as someone from Dept. of Natural Resources) into the classroom to discuss water quality/pollution issues in the area
  • Visit and test water quality parameters at a nearby water body (pond, stream, estuary, etc.)
  • Coordinate a clean up of the designated area
  • Coordinate with local government in order to paint storm drains with “Please Do Not Dump/ Chesapeake Bay Drainage” signs
slide18

Evaluation

  • Scoring tools designed to target what students must know
  • Assessment rubric design may be based on:
    • Class/lab participation, project design (Did it follow scientific method? Were ideas sound?), data collection methods, analysis of data
  • Formal assessment tool may be used to ensure all objectives are met
    • Worksheet/Questionnaire
    • Oral/Written report which addresses the importance of abiotic factors to aquatic organisms, water quality issues that have faced the Bay, and the possible impact of those issues on the organisms that live in the Bay
slide19

Credits

Dr. Andy Lazur, Horn Point Laboratory

Dr. Bill Van Heukelem, Horn Point Laboratory

Mr. Mark Rath, University of Maryland

Mr. Russell D. Long IV, Salisbury University

Dr. Byron Crump, Horn Point Laboratory

Reference

Brine Shrimp Direct, Technical FAQ: Brine Shrimp Egg Decapsulation, http://www.Brineshrimpdirect.com/brineshrimpdirect-faq-1-3-26.html