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Assessing reading comprehension skills in secondary school pupils. Dr Sue Stothard Centre for Reading and Language, University of York s.stothard@psych.york.ac.uk. 15 June 2010. Outline of Presentation Assessing reading with YARC-Secondary Illustrative Case Studies.

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assessing reading comprehension skills in secondary school pupils

Assessing reading comprehension skills in secondary school pupils

Dr Sue Stothard

Centre for Reading and Language, University of York

s.stothard@psych.york.ac.uk

15 June 2010

slide2
Outline of Presentation
  • Assessing reading with YARC-Secondary
  • Illustrative Case Studies
yarc secondary reading test
YARC-Secondary Reading Test

Contents

  • Single Word Reading
  • Passage Reading
    • Reading Comprehension
    • Reading Fluency
  • Reading Fluency
slide5

YARC - Single Word Reading

70 item test

see look play

scream journey suppose

excitable dehydration persuade

lacerate bureaucracy endogenous

yarc passage reading
YARC - Passage Reading

Main test - Two Parallel Forms:

Form A

Form B

Supplementary Passages

Poor readers

yarc passage reading7
YARC - Passage Reading

Form A

  • Level 1 (Intermediate Difficulty)
  • Level 2 (High Difficulty)

Form B

  • Level 1 (Intermediate Difficulty)
  • Level 2 (High Difficulty)

Supplementary Passages (Easy)

yarc passage reading8
YARC - Passage Reading

Form A

  • Level 1 (Intermediate Difficulty) - Fiction + Non-Fiction
  • Level 2 (High Difficulty) - Fiction + Non-Fiction

Form B

  • Level 1 (Intermediate Difficulty) - Fiction + Non-Fiction
  • Level 2 (High Difficulty) - Fiction + Non-Fiction

Supplementary Passages (Easy)

  • Fiction + Non-Fiction (YARC Primary)
slide9

Form A & B Passages – Silent Reading

  • Supplementary Passages – Oral Reading
  • (classification of reading errors)
extract from level 1 2a non fiction
Extract from Level 1.2A (Non-Fiction)

Honey for You, Honey for Me

In Southern Africa there is a bird called the Honey Guide. It is a small bird with a long pink beak. Its favourite food is honey. From a distance, the honey-guide looks drab and brown, but up close you can see a splash of pale yellow on the white chest feathers. It looks a little as if the bird has just enjoyed a meal of golden honey, and been none too careful about its table manners! However, the Honey Guide gets its name not just from the colour of its chest; it is very well adapted to feeding on the contents of bee hives. It doesn’t just eat the honey, but also bee eggs, larvae, pupae and even beeswax. In fact, they are one of only a handful of birds that can digest wax. The Honey Guide is what you might call a bee specialist....

471 words

extract from level 2 1a fiction
Extract from Level 2.1A (Fiction)

On the Way to the New World

Travelogue of Second-in-Command William Carewall, aboard the vessel ‘Phoenix,’ 12th of May, 1615.

The crew were much surprised today, on approaching the vicinities of the New World, at encountering an Indian at sea. Passing by a nearby island, shortly before reaching the main continent, we crossed paths with an authentic American Indian busy fishing on a small boat. Since we knew such practice to be extremely unusual among natives, we questioned him further.

‘I have been exiled from my tribe,’ he replied, in a rather neutral tone. ‘Now I live on this island, with fishing as my sole pursuit...’

395 words

slide12

Extract from Supplementary 1 (Fiction)

Missing Handbag

It was the first day of Ryan’s family holiday. They were staying in a cottage which overlooked the harbour in Peele Bay. It was a glorious sunny day, so the family had wandered down to the beach. Dad volunteered to look after their bags. Mum explored the beach, then joined Ryan and his sister in the foaming waves. Dad relaxed and read his magazine. When mum had had enough of the water, she returned to sit with dad. He had fallen asleep and was scarlet. She glanced around and realised her handbag was missing. It must have been stolen....

157 words

examples of different question types
Examples of different question types

1.2A Q6. Why are bee stings so dangerous to the Honey Guide? (Literal)

1.1A Q2. How do you think Norman feels about the summer holidays? (Evaluative Inference)

1.1A Q13. What do you think Norman will do next September? (Predictive Inference)

2.1 A Q6. Why did Mr. Levine offer the Indian gold? (Knowledge-Based Inference)

1.1B Q9. In the last paragraph, the author writes ‘soon the light began to fade’. What do you think he means? (Figurative Language)

2.2A Q11. In Paragraph 4, what does ‘commission’ mean? (Vocabulary)

Q14. Can you give a short summary of this passage, making clear what the main events are? (Summarisation)

passage reading assessing reading skills
Passage Reading - Assessing Reading Skills

1. Reading Rate

  • Time taken to read the passage

2. Reading Comprehension

  • 13 Comprehension Qs per passage
  • Inferential (Elaborative, Knowledge-Based, Evaluative, Predictive), Literal, Vocabulary & Figurative Language Qs

3. Summarisation Skills

4. Reading Accuracy (Supplementary Passages only)

yarc reading fluency
YARC – Reading Fluency

Fluency

  • Level 1
  • Level 2

Oral Reading

Reading Rate – Number of words read correctly per second

test norms
Test Norms

Standard Scores, Percentile Scores Reading Ages for:

  • Reading Comprehension
  • Reading Fluency
  • Reading Accuracy (single word reading)
  • Reading Accuracy (prose reading – poor readers)

Summarisation – 5 performance bands:

Low, Below Average, Average, Above Average, High

standard scores
Standard Scores
  • Range: 70 to 130
  • Average = 100 (85-115)
  • Severe Difficulty – below 80
standardisation sample n 123020
Standardisation Sample (N=1230)

SWRT 6-16 = Single Word Reading Test

case 1
Case 1

Maya

  • 11 years 1 month
  • Year 7
  • English - second language
  • No formal recognition of reading difficulties
  • YARC – Screening programme
slide26

Maya: ‘Poor Comprehender’ Profile

  • Difficulties: Making inferences, vocabulary, identifying main points
  • Strengths: Decoding skills

Recommendations:

  • Additional support with comprehension
  • Further assessment of language skills
  • Monitoring
case 2
Case 2

Lucy

  • 14 years 5 months
  • Year 10
  • SEN Register (no statement)
slide29

Lucy – Analysis of Reading Errors

Supplementary 1

standing -> staying, glanced -> glazed, realised -> resized, had -> was

Supplementary 2

sometimes -> something, leaving -> laying, collect -> correct, form -> from, purpose -> person

slide30

Lucy: ‘Dyslexic’ Profile

  • Difficulties: Decoding
  • Strengths: Reading comprehension

Recommendations:

  • Specialist reading intervention
  • Additional time in GCSE examinations
slide31

Summing up

  • Recommended uses for YARC:
  • to assess and monitor pupil progress
  • to identify reading problems
  • to assess eligibility for access arrangements
  • to provide diagnostic information in order to plan educational management
slide32

Thanks to:

  • Charles Hulme, Paula Clarke, Patrick Barmby & Maggie Snowling
  • Kate Nation, Lynne Duncan, Marie Jones, Helen Whiteley, Becky Larkin, Yvonne Griffiths, Sarah Logan, Emma Truelove & Geraldine Collins
  • The teachers and students who assisted with this project