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Ancient China. 1. Geography. Two major rivers Chang Jiang aka Yangzi Huang He aka Yellow River Civilizations in China started in the river valleys of these two rivers Crops South The environment was suitable for rice North Suitable for wheat and millet. c. Isolated

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1 geography
1. Geography
  • Two major rivers
    • Chang Jiang aka Yangzi
    • Huang He aka Yellow River
    • Civilizations in China started in the river valleys of these two rivers
  • Crops
    • South
      • The environment was suitable for rice
    • North
      • Suitable for wheat and millet
slide3

c. Isolated

  • Much of China is covered with mountains, hills and desert
  • Helped protect China from invasion
shang and zhou dynasties
Shang and Zhou Dynasties
  • Use textbook pages 109 – 112 to take notes on the development and achievements of China’s earliest dynasties.
2 major philosophies
2. Major Philosophies
  • Concept of the Mandate of Heaven
    • Political philosophy
    • Used to explain the fall of one dynasty and the rise of another
    • Stated that the gods would support a just ruler, but they would not allow anyone corrupt to hold power
slide7

b. Confucianism

  • Based on the teachings of a man named Kongfuzi or Confucius
  • Confucius
    • Believed that people should treat one another humanely
    • Believed tat love and respect had disappeared and this was what was responsible for violence in a society
    • Believed that if respect for tradition was restored, society would again be stable and orderly
slide8

iii. The Analects

  • A book written by Confucius
  • States that rulers should treat their subjects fairly
  • Subjects should in return reward their ruler with respect and loyalty
  • People need to respect the members of the family
  • It is the duty of all educated people to devote themselves to public service
slide9

c. Daoism

  • Encourages people to retreat from the laws of society and yield to the laws of nature
  • Concept of the Dao or the way
    • Dao is the limitless force that is part of all creation
slide10

iii. Embraces the concept of yin and yang

  • Represents the balancing aspect of nature
  • Neither can exist without the other
  • When in balance represents perfect harmony
3 buddhism
3. Buddhism
  • Origins
    • Originated in India
    • Founder, is a man by the name of Siddhartha Gautama
slide12

b. Teachings

  • Four Noble Truths
    • Suffering is a part of human life
      • No one can escape from suffering while alive
    • Suffering comes from people’s desires for pleasure and material goods
    • Overcoming these desires during life eventually brings suffering to an end
    • Desires can be overcome by following the Eightfold Path
slide13

ii. The Eightfold Path

  • Right View
    • Accepting the reality of the Four Noble Truths
  • Right Attitude
    • Striving for moderation in all things
  • Right Speech
    • Avoiding lies, boasts and hurtful words
  • Right Action
    • Treating others fairly
slide14

5. Right livelihood

  • Avoiding jobs that could bring harm to others

6. Right effort

  • Constantly trying to improve oneself

7. Right mindfulness

  • Remaining aware of the world around you

8. Right Concentration

  • Ignoring temptation and discomfort while meditating
slide15

iii. Nirvana

  • A state of perfect peace in which the soul would be free from suffering
  • Can be attained by following the Eightfold Path
  • If nirvana is not achieved you will be reborn and go through the cycles of suffering again
slide16

iv. Middle Way

  • Another way of expressing The Eightfold Path
  • “Live in moderation, avoid extremes of either comfort or discomfort in the search for nirvana”
slide17

c. 3 Divisions

  • Theravada (The Way of the Elders)
    • Oldest of the Buddhist traditions
    • Based on the Pali Canon
      • Oldest of the Buddhist Writings
    • Best way to attain nirvana is to become a monk or nun and spend all of one’s time in meditation
slide18

ii. Mahayana

  • Taught that people can help each other find enlightenment
  • Incorporated text written after the Buddha’s lifetime
  • Bodhisattvas
    • People who have found enlightenment but have not passed yet
    • Help others find enlightenment
slide19

iii. Tibetan Buddhism

  • Incorporates some of the many teachings with Mahayana
  • Believe you can use special techniques to harness spiritual energy and achieve nirvana in a single lifetime
february 4 2014
February 4, 2014

In America, it is often said that you can “pull yourself up by the bootstraps,” meaning if you work hard, you can overcome challenges and become very successful.

Do you think this is true? How often do you think people born in the lower classes move up to the upper classes? Do you think individuals should be able to move in society, despite their family’s status? Explain.

1 geography1
1. Geography

a. Subcontinent – large landmass that is part of a continent

i. Three major geographic zones

1. Himalaya and Hindu Kush mountain systems

2. Deccan Plateau

3. Northern Plains

a. Where Indian society first developed

slide23

b. Rivers

i. Indus River

ii. Ganges

c. Monsoons – seasonal winds that bring rain during the summer

i. First civilizations depended on monsoons to bring water for crops

2 indus valley civilization
2. Indus Valley Civilization

a. Cities and Settlements

1. Harappa and MohenjoDaro ("mound of the dead")

2. Well planned and carefully laid out

a. Streets run in grid pattern

b. Community wells

c. Public drainage system

3. Citadel – walled, elevated fortress that enclosed buildings such as granaries, warehouses, and meeting halls.

slide27

b. Economy

i. Focused on agriculture and trade

ii. City dwellers specialized in crafts such as pottery, metal-work, and jewelry

slide28

c. Society

i. Writing System

1. unable to read

ii. Single authority, rather than many city-

states

1. Common tool designs

2. Set of standard weights

slide29

d. Decline

i. Thrived from 2500 to 2000 BCE

ii. MohenjoDaro abandoned

1. Reasons unknown

3 the vedic period
3. The Vedic Period
  • Sacred writing called the Vedas

i. Includes details about Aryan history and society

1. Aryans took control of India sometime after 2000 BCE

slide31

b. Vedic Society

i. Groups of small villages banded together under regional leaders called rajas

1. Raja was a war leader

2. Protected the people in exchange for food and money

slide32

c. Social Structure

i. According to Rigveda, society divided into four social classes called varnas

slide33

1. Brahmins

a. highest ranking; smallest group; priests and teachers

2. Kshatriyas

a. Warriors and rulers

3. Vaisyas

a. Traders, farmers, herders, etc

4. Sudras

a. Servants

slide35

ii. Over centuries, varnas were divided into hundreds of smaller divisions called castes

1. Caste determines job and who you can marry

2. Untouchables were beneath caste system

slide37

d. Vedic Religion

i. People pray to many aspects of single eternal sprit

ii. Worship

1. Fire sacrifices

2. Offer food and drink

3. Rituals grew more complex over time

a. Gave Brahmin more power

4 basic teachings of hinduism
4. Basic Teachings of Hinduism
  • Brahman

i. Eternal being that created and preserves the world

ii. Everything in the world is an aspect of Brahman

iii. Human mind cannot understand Brahman

iv. Everybody has an atman, or soul, that is a part of Brahman

slide39

v. Brahman manifests in four different devas

1. Brahma, the Creator

2. Vishnu, the Preserver

3. Siva, the Destroyer

basic hindu beliefs
Basic Hindu Beliefs
  • Fold your paper in quarters
  • Use pages 99 – 100 to identify and describe the four basic Hindu beliefs
5 sacred texts and practices
5. Sacred Texts and Practices
  • The Vedas

i. Sacred hymns of praise

ii. Contains eternal knowledge revealed to humans by Brahman

b. Later writings inspired by Vedas

i. Upanishads

1. Deals with nature of the world and the meaning of life

slide44

c. Sacred Epics

i. Ramayana

1. Model for Hindu couples

ii. Mahabharata

1. War between 2 families

2. Teaches about dharma and proper behavior

3. Includes Bhagavad Gita, most sacred Hindu text

a. Diaglogue between Arjuna and Krisha (Vishnu in human form)

slide45

d. Religious Practices

i. Worship varies

1. Anywhere

2. Priests may recite portions of Vedas

3. May offer food, drink, gifts to deva

4. Prayers, meditation, reflection

a. Yoga – series of integrated physical and mental exercises

slide46

iii. Pilgrimage

1. Religious journey to a holy location, the Ganges River

6 jainism
6. Jainism
  • Believed Hindus put too much emphasis on ritual
  • Jains believe people can achieve moksha by giving up all worldly things and carefully controlling actions
  • Ahimsa

i. Nonviolence

  • Truthfulness
  • Eliminate greed, anger, prejudice, gossip
jeopardy
Jeopardy!
  • Groups of 4
  • Resources:
    • 1 whiteboard, 1 marker, 1 eraser
    • 1 textbook
    • 2 notebooks
  • First team to hold up the correct answer (must be legible) gets the point
  • Switch writers every turn!