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University of Balamand Faculty Of Sciences Department of Environmental Sciences Course: Environmental Economics And Development – EVSC 239. “Redefining the True Cost of Pine Nuts in Lebanon” P resented by: Cherine Akkari & Jeanette Al- Chami Presented to: Dr. Rania Masri. Outline.

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University of BalamandFaculty Of SciencesDepartment of Environmental SciencesCourse: Environmental Economics And Development – EVSC 239

“Redefining the True Cost of Pine Nuts in Lebanon”

Presented by: Cherine Akkari & Jeanette Al- Chami

Presented to: Dr. Rania Masri


  • History

  • Main Objective

  • Methodology

  • Expected Results

  • Conclusion

  • Documentary


  • Pine forests: The 2nd dominant types of forests after oak.

  • Pine forests: 17,200 ha of the surface area of Lebanon.

  • Types on pine forests in Lebanon:

    • Umbrella (or Stone) Pine- Pinuspinea

    • Calabrian Pine- Pinusbrutia

    • Aleppo Pine- Pinushalepensis

  • Stone Pine The most dominant species

    Native to the Mediterranean region (southern

    Europe), north Africa & the Levant

    Main countries: Spain, Portugal, Italy, Tunisia & Turkey

    Brought to Lebanon during the Phoenician time.

  • Stone Pine Extends from sea level to an altitude of 1,500m

    Metn, Baabda, Jezzine & north Lebanon (few)

    Flowers in the late spring

    Produces hard cones in the summer

    Produces soft shelled seeds as a result of a single


  • The estimated production of edible pine nuts is  600 tonne annually, which provides an income of about US$13 million.

  • Mostly used in food and sweet production

Main objective
Main Objective 1,500m

  • The main aim of this project is to find out if the price of pine nuts is based on all the costs and benefits and if not, what is the correct price that should be given.

  • We will be basing our project on the pine trees in Mount Lebanon, where they present the majority of pine nut production.

Main objective cont
Main Objective (Cont…): 1,500m

We had to study:

  • The environmental costs and benefits that result from this production.

  • if these costs are affecting the social, and the economic aspects of the community, workers, owners, farmers and the government.

  • What are the actions that the government took and is taking to help improve this production, taxes, discounts, availability of needed supplies for the production of pine nuts, and has it provided the farmers and continues to provide them with the fertilizers, medication for diseased trees, and damage costs and control of forest fires.

  • if the government provides the workers and farmers with the necessary health care and insurance, even if the workers are not Lebanese.

Methodology: 1,500m

  • On April 16, we conducted our field visit to Salima, in Mount Lebanon and we met with the representative of all the pine nut farmers in Lebanon. We asked him all the questions that we needed to get answers on.

  • We have visited a pine nut production site in Al- Koura, Beshmezzine. We got some answers from there, but since Pine nut production is most dominate in the Mount Lebanon region we prefer to take our target site there. We also tried to compare the answers that we got from both pine nut owners.

  • We combined all the information that we collected from these visits in our expected results.

Methodology continued
Methodology (Continued) 1,500m

  • We conducted a lot of research to answer the questions that need research. These questions concerned Governmental aspects, Legislation, Externalities, and the Market price. We were able to get some information on the market price and what it depends on but we also needed to research more about it, so we did. Answers to all of these questions are presented in our expected results.

  • After this we still had to do more research on these matters and get answers that are accurate and that are from the Ministry of Agriculture Research Department.

Results 1,500m

Matters we wanted to find in our results:

  • Price of pine nuts, constant, increases and why – depending on what..

  • Private/ public land

  • Workers: wages, health care, life styles, what they do, how are they paid...

  • Fertilizers used, natural resource management..

  • Forest fires, diseases, environmentally friendly ways of harvesting...

Result continued interview
Result (continued): 1,500mInterview

  • He has farmers and workers in the working domain of collecting, separating and producing pine nuts.

  • He started the interview by saying that in Lebanon, we have around 526-530owners of pine trees and responsible for the production of pine nuts. He stated that pine Trees are the most preferable types of trees to be found on the Lebanese grounds and that these trees have a lot of advantages concerning health and the climate. These trees are also considered as filters for the air and for nature.

Discussion: 1,500m

  • Most production comes from the Mount Lebanon area, especially from Rass el Metn. Within the Jezzine cluster

  • According to the 2010 data by the Ministry of Agriculture, one kilo of pine nuts cost $37 which is equivalent to 52,500 L.L. Today in 2011and according to the Ministry of Agricultures data again, one kilo now costs $43 which is now equivalent to 65, 000 L.L. This shows increase of $6 just in one year. This also depends on the market place. Certain villages that do not produce pine nuts will have to pay more to buy it.

Discussion continued

Total Economic Valuation 1,500m

Use Value

Non-Use Value

Direct Use Value

Indirect Use Value

Option Value

Exsistance Value


Non Consumptive

Bequest Value

Discussion (Continued):

Discussion continued1
Discussion (Continued): 1,500m


  • Economic Externalities: including market price approach, human capital approach, orrortunity costs, cost of illness approach, Willingness to pay, Willingness to accept.

  • Social Externalities: Local worker/ Labor, Cultural heritage, Machinery, Acceptance by the local community.

Discussion (Continued): 1,500m

3. Environmental Externalities:

  • Soil Pollution and Water Pollution (fertilizer) (–ve)

  • Air pollution (Machinery) (–ve)

  • Contribute to GHGs ( –ve)

  • Maintaining Conservation and preservation (+ ve)

  • Biofuel use (+ ve)

Discussion continued2
Discussion (Continued) 1,500m

  • Taking into consideration the labour cost, valuation cost we believe that even though these matters can not be priced, we can still place a certain number to resemble these costs.

  • We find that the final price of the pine nuts should be:

  • $20.3/ton * Numbers of tons of pine nuts * Total Surface area pine forest + value of externalities (1.25*number of tons)

Conclusion: 1,500m

  • The production should be encouraged to maintain the heritage of Lebanon.

  • Losing the production from pine nuts will be like losing a part of the Lebanese cultural heritage, especially for those people who depend on such kind of production for their livelihoods.

  • Unfortunately, the production of pine nuts is threatening the livelihoods of the farmers that are engaged in the production of pine nuts.

  • This is due to the lack of support from the Lebanese government.

  • As a solution, the Lebanese government should support the production of pine nuts through putting incentives, internalizing the externalities into the cost of pine nuts, and putting subsidies to encourage exporting pine nuts through the government. This will enable including such kind of production in the GDP, which will make the Lebanese economy much better and more active.

References: 1,500m

  • (FAO), F. a. (October 2006). Agricultural Homogenous Zones (Case Studies). Lebanon : Ministry of Agriculture.

  • Beetz, A. E. (March 2011). Agroforestry: An Overview. NCAT.

  • Dalsgaard, M. S. (September 2005). National Forest and Tree Assessment and Inventory. International Forestry Consultant.

  • Estephan, J. Lebanon. Ministry of Agriculture.

  • Fady, B. (2004). Italian stone pine. Rome, Italy: EUFORGEN secretariat.


  • MrTalih MASRI, M. C. (2005). Wood and non-wood forest product losses after fire events in three typical Mediterranean Forests- Lebanese Case Study.

  • N.A. (2005). GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCES, GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCES - LEBANON. Rome: Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

  • Nakhle, E. M. (July 2010). Lebanon: Real GDP Growth Analysis. Lebanon: IMF Resident Representative Office in Lebanon.

  • Natali, S. M. (29 July 2008). Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilization on nitrate reductase activity in sweetgum and loblolly pine trees in two temperate forests. Springer Science.

  • Nehme, M. E. (June 2010). Pine Nuts Cluster Development Plan . Lebanon: USAID.

  • Ovando, P. (23 October 2009). Landowner benefits from replacing Eucalyptus stands withStone pine plantations in Huelva, Spain. Buenos Aires, Argentina: World Forestry Congress.

  • Pagiola, S. (October 2004). Assessing the Economic Value of Ecosystem Conservation . THE WORLD BANK ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT.

  • Shimizu, T. (2006). Methodology and case studies on linkages between poverty and forestry. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS.

Thank You for u 1,500m