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HFO Low Global Warming Technology Rene Mueller. Low Global Warming Technology Programs. Honeywell initiated R&D on low global warming programs in 2001 Programs in place for all fluorocarbon applications Multi-year development projects

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low global warming technology programs
Low Global Warming Technology Programs
  • Honeywell initiated R&D on low global warming programs in 2001
  • Programs in place for all fluorocarbon applications
  • Multi-year development projects
    • Toxicity, environmental & regulatory approvals, performance testing, manufacturing technology development, plant design & construction
  • Near term low global warming products
    • 1234ze: 1-component foam, aerosol, …
    • 1234yf: Mobile air conditioning
  • Continuing development
    • Polyurethane foam
    • Cleaning & deposition solvents
    • Commercial refrigeration
    • Stationary air conditioning
  • 1234ze available in Europe now
  • Plan to launch 1234yf in 2010

Multiple Products In Development

  • Early stage development
  • Significant environmental & toxicity testing to complete
  • Application validation
low gwp product identification

Requirements

Screening Criteria

Prioritize

Candidates

Low GWP Product Identification
  • GWP
  • ODP
  • Low Toxicity
  • Nonflammable
  • Use Existing Equipment
  • Energy Efficient
  • Economically Viable
  • Low GWP
  • Zero ODP
  • Nonflammable
  • Use In Existing System
  • Manufacturability
  • Not Known To Be Toxic
hfc replacements major applications

+50

Solvent

Applications

365mfc

+40

Polyurethane

Foam

(Liquid BA)

+30

Chillers (LP)

+20o

245fa

+10

Decreasing Number Of Molecules

Meeting Requirements

0

-10

Polyurethane

Foam

(Gaseous BA)

227ea

Aerosol

Propellants

-20

XPS Foam

134a

Mobile A/C

-30

Commercial

Refrigeration

22, 407C

-40

Stationary A/C

404A

-50

410A

HFC Replacements – Major Applications

Boiling Point, oC

hfo 1234yf
HFO-1234yf

HFO-1234ze(E)

Vapor Pressure Vs. Temperature

Vapor Pressure Vs. Temperature

Pressure, MPa

Pressure, MPa

Temperature, oC

Temperature, oC

  • Environmental
  • ODP = 0
  • GWP100 = 4
  • Atmospheric Life: 11 days
  • Toxicity & Regulatory Approvals
  • Low toxicity : Honeywell PEL = 400 ppm
  • Key toxicity testing complete; good results
  • Notified to ELINCS, hence registered to REACH. Submit HPV update by Dec 1.
  • U.S. PMN & SNAP applications in progress
  • Preparing Japanese notification
  • Environmental
  • ODP = 0
  • GWP100 = 6
  • Atmospheric Life: 18 days
  • Toxicity & Regulatory Approvals
  • Low toxicity : Honeywell PEL = 1,000 ppm
  • Significant testing completed; good results
  • EU Notification Annex VIII Level 1
  • ELINCS 471-480-1
  • U.S. PMN & SNAP applications in progress
  • Preparing Japanese notification

Excellent Environmental & Toxicological Properties

1234yf the leading replacement for r 134a in auto a c
1234yf – The Leading Replacement For R-134a In Auto A/C
  • Excellent environmental properties
    • Very low GWP of 4, Zero ODP, Favorable LCCP
    • Atmospheric chemistry determined and published
  • Low toxicity, similar to R-134a
    • Low acute and repeated exposure toxicity
    • Significant testing completed
    • Initial PEL 400 ppm
  • System performance very similar to R-134a
    • Excellent COP and Capacity, no glide
      • From both internal tests and OEM tests
    • Thermally stable and compatible with R-134a components
    • Potential for direct substitution of R-134a
  • Mild flammability (manageable)
    • Flammability significantly less than 152a
    • Expect “A2L” ISO 817 classification versus “A2” for 152a
    • Potential to use in a direct expansion A/C system
  • Global Solution
    • Lowest total cost of transition than any alternative
    • Good performance in all climates, and car sizes
slide7

DuPont and Honeywell feel comfortable with all toxicity test results conducted to date and will continue the commercialization of HFO-1234yf for use in MAC

Based on toxicity testing conducted to date, including the second species developmental and the 2-generation reproductive (1-generation interim results) studies, we believe HFO-1234yf will not be classified as a developmental or reproductive toxin, and it will likely be classified as ASHRAE Class A (low toxicity).

There appear to be no health safety hazards or properties that would preclude the safe use of HFO-1234yf in MAC applications.

jama 1234yf lccp results
JAMA 1234yf LCCP Results

1234yf LCCP Results Is 20% - 30% Less Than R134a Or CO2

1234ze e foam aerosol refrigerant applications
1234ze(E) – Foam, Aerosol & Refrigerant Applications
  • Excellent environmental properties
    • Very low GWP of 6 and zero ODP
    • Atmospheric chemistry determined and published
  • Low toxicity
    • Low acute and repeated exposure toxicity
    • Significant testing completed
    • Honeywell preliminary PEL 1,000 ppm
  • Excellent 1-component foam performance
    • Essentially a drop-in for 134a
  • Potential for use in other applications
    • Aerosol propellant
    • Extruded polystyrene foam
    • Polyurethane foam (gaseous blowing agent)
    • Refrigerant blend component
  • Regulatory approval in EU for 1,000 mt/year
    • Assessing larger scale manufacturing options
    • Timing depends on industry demand
1234ze e one component foam

1234ze(E): One - Component Foam

HFC-134a: One-Component Foam

1234ze(E) One-Component Foam

Comparison With HFC-134a

  • One-component polyurethane foam used to seal cracks and openings in construction applications.
  • Foam is delivered and expanded using HFC-134a from a pressurized container
  • EU F-Gas regulation requires that one-component foam made after July 4, 2008 use a blowing agent with a GWP < 150
  • EU F-Gas regulation requires novelty aerosols made after July 4, 2009 use a propellant with a GWP < 150
  • Excellent foam quality on drop-in basis
1234ze e thermal insulation foam applications
Performance similar to HFC-134a

Exhibits self-nucleation / small cell size

Improvement with appropriately chosen co-blowing agent

Solubility

Similar to HFC-134a at high blowing agent loading

Diffusivity / Permeability assessment underway

Thermal performance characterization:

1234ze vapor thermal conductivity: 13.0 mW/m·K

142b (12) < 1234ze (13) < 134a (14) < CO2

Soluble across wide range of polyols

More soluble than HFC-134a

Less soluble than HFC-245fa

Processes similarly to HFC-134a

Panel lambda equal/better than HFC-134a

Foam mechanical properties equal to HFC-134a

Thermal performance characterization:

1234ze vapor thermal conductivity: 13.0 mW/m·K

245fa (12) < 1234ze (13) < 134a (14) < CO2

1234ze(E) Thermal Insulation Foam Applications

Extruded Polystyrene Foam

Rigid Polyurethane Foam

Promising For Extruded Thermoplastic Foams

Good Replacement For 134aIn Polyurethane Foam

summary
Summary
  • HFO-1234yf: Moving towards industry decision
    • Plant design underway
    • Plant construction will follow industry decision
  • HFO-1234ze: Launched in Europe for 1-component foam & aerosol
    • Potentially useful in other applications globally
    • Timing and scale of larger 1234ze(E) manufacturing asset will depend on demand from all applications
  • Low GWP blends for stationary applications under development
    • Working with OEMs to identify the best formulations
  • Other low GWP products
    • HBA-2 shows promises a polyurethane blowing agent and a cleaning solvent

Thank You