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  1. Europe Latin America

  2. Upper Class Middle Class Women < Men in Work Family Wage Cult of Domesticity Lower Class • Married to farmers • Hardly worked • Case of Workhouse • Prostitution • Candlemaking Education of music, dancing, table manners, ways to host, Expected to marry into money housewives Merchants and Mill Operators Education as an option Hostess Skills for the rich Upper-Middle: Would not cook by herself, for she had a cook Lower-Middle: had a job to get enough money to marry • Jobs: Nurses and Teachers > Personnel in Stores, Secretaries and Clerks > Domestic Services and Prostitution

  3. Women in Industrialized Era Friedrich Engels The Condition of the Working Class in England The Communist Manifesto Karl Marx Engels and Marx encourage women for citizens’ rights and economic independence “The peculiar character of the supremacy of the husband over the wife in the modern family, the necessity of creating real social equality between them and the way to do it, will only be seen in the clear light of day when both possess legally complete equality of rights. Then it will be plain that the first condition for the liberation of the wife is to bring the whole female sex back into public industry, and that this in turn demands that the characteristic of the monogamous family as the economic unit of society be abolished.” (Spodek 578)

  4. Latin America • Division of social hierarchy • Factories and Plantations – Poor Working Condition • Indirect Industrialization along with Colonization

  5. Gender role India& Africa

  6. Gender role India -EU influence for woman -Abolition of Sati by British -Legalize minimum age of marriage -Work for cotton industry -Caste system -following status of caste -Restrictions by religion -Hinduism/Islam

  7. Gender role AFRICA -Selling wife/ Children -Prostitution rate Broken families -FGM -Female Genital Mutilation -Polygamy -Patriarchy -private property for only man

  8. Russia-CHANGES • Improvement under Catherine II -Society for the Education of Noble Girls(Smol’nyl Institute) -promotion of nuclear family However, >centered on “being a good wife & mother” >only for the nobility • After the abolition of serfdom in 1861 -more mobility ->more expanded marriage market for peasants -women’s entry into factories ->freer sexual relationships -freer choice in marriage Catherine II (1762-1796)

  9. Russia-CONTINUITIES • Patriarchal society -Merely recorded as daughter of~, wife of~, niece of~, aunt of~ -Remarriage more popular among men -Divorce almost never allowed -highlighted “womanly” values -patrilocal -Widening age gap between husbands and wives after reformation

  10. The Ottoman-CHANGES • Progress in Women’s Education -women’s struggle for better education -1863: 1st educational institutions for women -1908: The Young Turks improved chance of education • 1stwomen’s magazine in 1869 • Large adoption of European fashion among women >but only for the elite women • Influence of Western thoughts -radicals called for monogamy, abolition of odalik(concubines), free choice of female garment, freedom of marriage, etc. -even Islamic traditionalists supported the protection of some of women’s rights

  11. CONTINUITIES *Traditional views on women -criticism on adoption of European dress by Muslim women -emphasis on women’s domestic duties -majority of women still stuck to the male supremacy • Patriarchal & patrilocal society -Lower marriage age for girls -limited role in public spheres: veils, no voting rights -women in inferior position Active but unofficial women participation in economic sector(middle & lower classes)

  12. Japan: Changes • CASH CROPS • However, industrialization and its increasing demand for cash crops(silk) • Farmers Wage earners • Major job distinct division of labor along gender lines • NEW FACTORIES: THE SILK-GROWING REGIONS OF JAPAN. • Large numbers of workers: mostly women(Osaka, first massive spinning mills opened in 1883.) • The Burgeoning silk, cotton industries  countless young women from the poorer agricultural regions • MORE WORKERS NEEDED FOR JAPANESE SILK EXPORT WORLDWIDE • 10-11 young girls under contract for at least a year at a time • Work without break for 20 days, locked inside factory dormitories

  13. Japan: Continuities • END OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, WOMEN DOMINATE JAPAN’S FACTORY WORK FORCE • Major job distinct division of labor along gender lines • No equality in pay or work • Specialized position for men: mule spinners(reformed the physically demanding job of spinning yarn or machinists) more paid until 20thcen • Industrialization result in profound social and demographic changes • Transformation • YOUNG JAPANESE WOMAN’S VOICE • “The recruiter promised us that once we got tothe factory we would be taught how to perform the tea ceremony, flower arranging,sewing, and arts that a girl should know, but in fact, they did not teach us anything.” • “In the old days, we were sent out to reduce the number of people who had to be fed at home, so we didn’t complain about the pay. We could eat rice, and that alone was better than staying at home.”

  14. China: Changes • FOOT BINDING • Banned in early Ming dynasty • EDUCATION • Aside from socio-economic development, gender equality in academia has had considerable direct and indirect effects on fertility rates and family planning • Free market, institutional reforms, decollectivization of agriculture  Chinese families given opportunities to women

  15. China: Continuities • LONG HISTORY WITH CULTURAL TRADITION • Highly valued Confucianism • patriarchal • HIGHLY LIMITED FOR WOMEN • Regime, family rights, divine rights, authority over the house hold • Men centered society • DIFFERENTIAL AND DISCRIMINATION OF GENDER WAGE • China’s economic reform affect • Privatization/marketization leads larger wage gap • Shanghai, Jinan • Caused by limited education