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The problem of Allergies. A Study of the Immune System An Innovative Solution for allergies. Allergies affect more people than any other chronic disease. About 50 million people are affected by allergies in the US Main costs are due to Medications ER visits

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The problem of Allergies

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    1. The problem of Allergies A Study of the Immune System An Innovative Solution for allergies

    2. Allergies affect more people than any other chronic disease • About 50 million people are affected by allergies in the US • Main costs are due to • Medications • ER visits • But many people are not diagnosed or do not follow the treatment regimen

    3. Allergies are becoming more common • From 1980 to 2010 the percentage of the western population with allergies went up from 10% to 30% • Food allergies are increasing among children • New allergies being discovered • Latex allergy

    4. Allergies are expensive • Current cost of allergies about $32 billion • Since many people are not diagnosed, the costs are underestimated • More and more people are becoming allergic

    5. Allergies are expensive for the victim • Acute flair ups require ER visits • Average cost $1,038 • Continuous cost of chronic problems • Antihistamines • Topical-steroids • Epi-pens • Over $200 /month

    6. Allergies compromise the lifestyle of the patients Do they have pets? I forgot my Claritin • Stay on constant vigilance • On medication at all times • Ingredients in foods • Indoor or outdoor activities • Carry epi-pens and know how to administer them • Opportunity cost • About 3.8million lost school and work days because of allergies annually Is that a Birch tree? Does this have peanuts?

    7. Allergies and co-morbid conditions • People with allergies often have other chronic diseases • Average person with allergies has 2.3 co-morbid conditions • The most common co-morbid condition is hypertension

    8. Prevention is better • Envirobots has come up with an innovative solution. • We will modulate your immune system to react differently to harmless allergens • Obvious benefit for allergy patients • Other immune system diseases can benefit in the future • Auto immune, cancer, AIDS, organ transplant recipients

    9. Reasons for increase in Allergies • Increase in cleanliness • By constantly washing up, we are underexposed to dust, pollen, and other common allergens. • Our body now incorrectly classifies those substances as antigens • Limited exposure to animals • Animals possess endotoxins- a bacteria that helps prevent allergies and diseases • Technological developments expose us to more chemicals

    10. Reasons for increase in Allergies • Environmental Pollution • When pollen is coated with chemicals from burnt fossil fuels, the allergic reaction intensifies • Healthy lifestyle is sacrificed for convenience • People are not going outside anymore • Computers and videogames keep people inside • Less exposure to allergens makes people more allergic Games like Farmville are replacing actual hobbies like gardening.

    11. How does the immune system work?

    12. Our Immune System • The Immune system was discovered in the Plague of Athens in 430 BC • Protects us against anything that attacks the body • White blood cells guards against • External pathogens like viruses and bacteria • Internal tumors

    13. The Immune System offers three layers of protection

    14. Physical Barriers Prevent pathogen entrance • The skin acts like a ceran wrap • Other openings in the body are protected • E.g. nose Pathogens that do get in get excreted/destroyed • Body secretions • Saliva, mucus, urine, faeces, tears • Chemicals like stomach acid destroy bacteria • Gut flora prevent colonization of pathogens Nose hairs filter out particles Entry point on bottom

    15. Innate Immune System Instantaneous, inflammatory response to antigens • Histamine is secreted by Mast cells • Vasodilation increases blood supply • Phagocytes attracted by complement • Complement helps phagocytes engulf and also release histamine Macrophage

    16. Adaptive Immune System Tailored responses to specific antigens • Histamine is secreted by Mast cells • Vasodilation increases blood supply • Phagocytes attracted by complement • Complement helps phagocytes engulf and also release histamine B Cell with antibodies

    17. Summary

    18. Details of the immune system

    19. Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) • The adaptive immune system uses the MHC molecules to find antigens • The MHC molecules are able to display proteins on their surface • T-cells use these protein displays to identify the antigens • Aka Human Leukocyte Antigen

    20. B Cells • Have receptors called antibodies on surface where antigens attach • Initial response • Antigen attaches to a receptor stimulating B cells to divide • Some B cells change into memory cells, to remember the specific antigen • Others change into plasma cells that produce antibodies for the next attack • Secondary Response • If the B cells comes into contact with the allergen again they quickly multiply Antibody

    21. T Cells • Learn to distinguish self from non self cells • Three types • Killer T cells attach to foreign or abnormal cells (having encountered them before) and kill these cells through a method of puncturing the cell and injecting enzymes to kill them • Helper T cells recognize the antigen and summon the B cells and killer T cellers • Suppressor T cells produce chemicals to stop the immune response

    22. T Cells at work • Initially, a T cell can’t recognize an antigen in the body because it is too big to fit into the T-cell receptor. • A dendritic cell, which can process antigens, digests it. • Enzymes within the dendritic cell break the antigen into little fragments. • MHC molecules link with the smaller antigen fragments, and present them to the T-cell receptors • The smaller fragments understandable by the T-cell, which begin the defense

    23. Immune system mistakes

    24. When the immune system makes a mistake • The Immune system can make mistakes • False detections of external pathogens result in allergies • False detection of internal tissues can cause auto-immune diseases

    25. You sneeze when you get allergies • Sometimes the immune system makes a mistake and thinks a harmless product is antigen • The MHC helps display the antigen to the T cells who recognize it as non self • The peptide signal is displayed • B cells and antibodies are activated • Killer T cells are activated • IgE binds to the mast cells • The mast cells de-granulate and release the histamine in them The body has just initiated an Inflammatory Response

    26. The Envirobots solution

    27. The EnviroBOSS Solution • Consists of a set of nano-bots introduced into the blood stream • The nanobots stop the allergic reactions • A control arm band • Allows the antigens to be configured for the nanobot • Allows for a manual over-ride in case of emergency

    28. How Does it Work? • Stops the attack even before it starts • The nanobots recognize the peptide combination presented by the MHC and break it down before the antigen is presented to the T cells • Destroys peptide signal to helper T cells • The Arm band has different signals for different peptides programmed into it EnviroBOSS destroying the antigen presentation

    29. EnviroBOSS Arm Band • The arm band is like a control center • program peptide combinations using a easy to use user interface • Communicates with nanobots using high frequency microwaves which are reliable and don’t hurt your body • Manual override • Panic button releases epinephrine in case of emergency Epinephrine Antenna for communicating with nanobot

    30. The EnviroBOSSNanobots Radio antenna Signal Destroyer • Multiple nanobotsare injected into the bloodstream • The nanobotis programmed to recognize the amino acid/peptide combinations, which represent the user’s allergies. • The robot motor is made from grafted heart muscles and powered by the patient’s blood sugar • When a programmed protein combination is recognized by the nanobotit destroys the protein preventing the immune system reactions Sugar intake View from the bottom

    31. Envirobots against existing treatments (Alternate treatments)

    32. EnviroBOSS vs. Antihistamines Antihistamines EnviroBOSS • Histamines are still present, so brain stays alert and awake • Body doesn’t adapt to nanobots • Emergency should not even arise but the epinephrine panic button is easy to use in emergencies • Drowsiness in older antihistamines • Body adapts to antihistamines and you need a new one every few months • No good in emergencies

    33. EnviroBOSS vs. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy EnviroBOSS • Immediate effect after treatment • Works with all allergies • Emergencies should not even arise but the epinephrine panic button is easy to use in emergencies • Takes a long time to take effect • Does not work in food allergies • No good in an emergency