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Kinetic Inductance Detectors

Kinetic Inductance Detectors

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Kinetic Inductance Detectors

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  1. Radiation Al film 2 1 Kinetic Inductance Detectors SRON Stephen Yates, Jochem Baselmans, Andrey Baryshev, Jan Joost Lankwarden, Henk Hoevers. TNO G. Gerini, A. Neto, D. Bekers. TU Delft R. Barends, J.R. Gao, T.M. Klapwijk. Cardiff University S. Doyle, P.D. Mauskopf, P. Ade Sub-mm

  2. SRON: The Netherlands Institute for Space Research • Low Energy Astrophysics; • historically: IRAS, ISO-SWS... • PI for Herschel HIFI (PI) • ALMA band 9 • High Energy Astrophysics • XMM-Newton • Sensor Research and Technology • TES microcalorimeters for IXO (XEUS) • KIDs research • also HEBs • Also • Earth Orientated Science • Engineering Division - ASIC development

  3. SPICA Japanese satellite 3.5 m 4 K mirror (first ever) -> very low photon background European instrument SAFARI FIR-sub-mm FTS imaging spectrometer selected ESA cosmic vision program 2015+ 3 bands f/20 implies 31x31 mm arrays NEP < 210-19 W/Hz, 3dB roll-off > 20 Hz Instantaneous dynamic range >1000 SPICA-SAFARI Band 1

  4. KID: Principle of operation P. Day, et al., Nature 425, 817 (2003). • Superconducting pair breaking detector • Measure broken Cooper pairs by measuring the Kinetic Inductance • At T<<Tc Superconductor impedance • Read out Zs by resonant circuit @ F=2-8 GHz • Combine superconductor in series with C • Read-out using phase or amplitude! Zs ~ -iLK E Superconductor Quasiparticles N ~ P /  1 2  EF Photons E > 2 1 2 Cooper Pairs Superconductor

  5. Antenna Antenna Position Coupler Readout current 1 2 Antenna coupled KID RF Photons E > 2 ¼  resonator @Freadout Most sensitive @ end Printed antenna @ FRF FRF >> Freadout Antenna does not influence resonator Needs lens! Most sensitive area CPW ¼  Resonator L= 5 mm @ 6 GHz 100 m Al ground plane Coupler Length sets Coupling Q CPW Through line Readout signal ~4 GHz Bare substrate Central conductor 1 2

  6. Measured Beam Pattern X Y

  7. Monolithic Si lens array Many resonators Many resonance features @ different F Radiation SAFARI KID focal plane concept + Si microlens array 2nm roughness 7nm spherical precision 250 nm position accuracy With markers Antenna coupled KID design Printed lithographically alignment using backside markers present resonator design fits within F/20 Alignment antenna-lenses within 1-2 m Identical misalignment for all pixels (if any) No show stoppers expected for F/20 for all SPICA arrays

  8. Dark NEP • Measurements of noise, responsivity and lifetime => NEP • Lifetime ~ 1 msec • BW = 160 Hz • NEP~610-19 W/Hz • 40 nmAl on Sapphire, sputtered • 100 nm Al on SI, evaporated • Dynamic Range: using θ<90° • P/NEP ~ 10.000Hz (KID 43) • ~ 3000 Hz (KID 44) • Only optical coupling as uncertainty • Calculations ~agree with optical NEP

  9. IRAM camera • Take advantage of work for SPICA • Planar antenna experience • Work on electronics • Can support KID option • Demonstrator 1kpixel • array manufacturer • advise/collaboration readout, electronics • Need collaborators • Neél/Rome/Cardiff

  10. Advantages KIDs • Cryogenically simple: • 1 coax, cryogenic amplifier for ~10000pixels • Antenna coupling - can have multi band/polarisation or very wideband • Have (electrical) NEPs better than required • Simple manufacture - high yield (typical~95%) • Sensitivity: • vibration insensitive • magnetic field needs to be constant (i.e. SC shield) but doesn't change performance

  11. Vericold GMBH • Pulse tube 3.5K • Dual stage ADR • Tmin<50 mK Sample holder 50 mK ADR setup Magnetic shield (bottom part) Also 3K SC shield NbTi Coax Stainless Steel Coax, can use CuNi from 4K DC blocks 50 mK 500 mK link LNA DC block 4 K stage

  12. SAFARI KID Readout • Satalite: 20 W , 5 kg • Best first order estimate most optimistic design: • Power consumption: ~300 W using 180 nm ASIC, ~80 W using 90 nm ASIC • 6000 pixels in 1 GHz BW => Highly questionable!!! • 20 x 50 MHz subbands, 6% dead pixels due to confusion • DAC: 53 dB SNR, ENOB=8.6 • 40 analog mixers: 4-8 kg • On chip analog microwave cirquits + optimised digital design needed ASIC design group within SRON Digital experience from Eureca - Xeus • 4-8 GHz BW would be more realistic -> factor 4 in power 10 MHz reference 2GHz 2.05GHz 2.1GHz ~ ~ ~ ~ 100Msample/sec DAC’s 20 mK 4K ADC DAC ADC DAC ADC DAC

  13. SAFARI KID cryogenic design242K – 4K Sub 1.7 K single shot Cooler 3 arrays, total 5940 pixels All pixels in 1 pair of cables SPICA has 11 temperature stages 3m from 242K – 4.5K, ~5 dB cable loss Sub 1.7K Cooler Sorption Cooler + ADR, single shot LNA’s: HIFI heritage T Pload length loss 4.5 K 0.3mW 0.5m 0.9dB 2.5 K 8W tbd 0 1.7 K 1W tbd 0 300 mK 0.5W tbd 0 100 mK 50nW 242 K 100 K 30mW 0.5m 0.9dB 85 K 4mW 0.5m 0.9dB 60 K 3mW 0.5m 0.9dB 41 K 2mW 0.5m 0.9dB 18 K 1mW 0.5m 0.9dB Warm electronics 3.6 mm CuNi Ag cladded coax 1.6 mm NbTi Coax LNA 12 dB 2 mW LNA 12 dB 2 mW LNA 12 dB 2 mW 3 arrays in series