- The atmosphere -. The atmosphere’s composition. The atmosphere’s four layers. Atmospheric layers have different Temperatures Densities Composition. The troposphere drives weather and climate. Wind, temperature, pressure, humidity, cloudiness
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Mount Saint Helens eruption in 1980
In 2008, the U.S. emitted 123 million tons of the six monitored pollutants
The average U.S. driver emits 6 metric tons of CO2/yr as well as other pollutants!
National Ambient Air Quality Standard
Non-cancerous respiratory ailments from air pollution
Nationwide cancer risks from air pollution alone
Smog in Beijing surrounds an Olympic stadium
More people own cars
Smog in Donora killed 21 people and sickened 6,000
High levels of NO2 cause photochemical smog to form a brown haze over cities
International agreements reduced ozone-depleting substances
The hole in the ozone has stopped growing
Many regions of acidification are downwind of major sources of pollution
Indoor air pollution=in any building
Health effects are greater than from outdoor pollution
The average U.S. citizen spends 90% of the time indoors
Exposed to synthetic materials that have not been fully tested
Low air flow means pollutants build up!
From burning wood, charcoal, dung, crop wastes with poor ventilation
Fuel burning pollution causes 1.6 million deaths/year
Soot and carbon monoxide
Pneumonia, bronchitis, lung cancer, allergies, cataracts, asthma, heart disease, etc.
Common indoor pollutants in developed nations!
Secondhand smoke from cigarettes is very dangerous
Contains over 4,000 chemical compounds
Causes eye, nose, and throat irritation
Radon causes 21,000 deaths a year in the U.S. (lung cancer)
A radioactive gas resulting from natural decay of rock, soil, or water that can seep into buildings
The most diverse group of indoor air pollutants
Released by everything from plastics and oils to perfumes and paints
Health effects: Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to liver, kidney, and central nervous system. Some organics can cause cancer in lab animals; some are suspected or known to cause cancer in humans. Key signs or symptoms associated with exposure to VOCs include conjunctival irritation, nose and throat discomfort, headache, allergic skin reaction, dyspnea, declines in serum cholinesterase levels, nausea, emesis, epistaxis, fatigue, dizziness.
Formaldehyde leaking from pressed wood and insulation irritates mucous membranes and induces skin allergies
Pesticides seep through floors and walls
Dust mites and animal dander worsen asthma
Fungi, mold, mildew, airborne bacteria cause allergies, asthma, other respiratory ailments and diseases
Sick building syndrome = a sickness produced by indoor pollution with general and nonspecific symptoms
Reduced by using low-toxicity building materials and good ventilation
In developed countries:
Use low-toxicity materials, limit use of plastics and treated wood, monitor air quality, keep rooms clean
Use less toxic products
In developing countries:
Dry wood before burning
More efficient stoves
Use less-polluting fuels (natural gas)