Lecture 5. PERSONALITY II: Dimensions of Personality. Class Outline. Lecture - the various dimensions of personality Exercise: What is your type? The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) complete the survey and score it exploring types video (15 minutes - if we have time) So what?.
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Lecture 5 PERSONALITY II: Dimensions of Personality
Class Outline • Lecture - the various dimensions of personality • Exercise: What is your type? The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • complete the survey and score it • exploring types • video (15 minutes - if we have time) • So what?
Dimensions of Personality • The Big Five Model • Cognitive Style (and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator)
The Big Five Model of Personality • Directed at the work place • Five dimensions of personality • Extroversion • Emotional Adjustment • Agreeableness • Conscientiousness • Intellect/openness to experience
The ‘BIG FIVE’ Personality Dimensions • extraversion/introversion • traits: sociability, gregarious, assertive, talkative, active • emotional stability (neuroticism) • traits: anxious, depressed, angry, emotional, insecure • agreeableness (likeability) • traits: courteous, flexible, trusting, cooperative • conscientiousness (conformity; dependability) • traits: dependability, careful, thorough, responsible • intellect (openness to experience) • traits: imaginative, cultured, curious, original, broad-minded
Evidence • conscientiousness predicts performance for all occupational groups • extroversion predicts performance for managers and sales representatives • openness to experience and extroversion predict success in training
Cognitive Style • Carl Jung’s proposal: • individuals have different preferences for how they approach the world, acquire information, process information, and make decisions • Four sets of preferences (dimensions) • each with two opposite ‘poles’ • individuals vary along each of the four • gives 16 possible personality types
Cognitive Style (cont.) • Four Dimensions • Introvert vs. Extrovert (inner v. outer world) • Thinking vs. Feeling (logic v. subjective view) • Sensing vs. Intuiting (detail v. broad focus) • Judging vs. Perceiving (resolution v. flexibility)
Orientation to the world: Extraversion vs. Introversion • Extraversion - preference for: • action and interaction over reflection • talking things over with others to gain understanding • oral communication • taking the initiative in social and work settings • getting involved in social activities to ‘re-energize’
Orientation to the world: Introversion vs. Extraversion • Introversion - a preference for: • reflection over action • thinking things through to gain understanding • written communication rather than oral • working alone or with one or two others • spending time alone in order to re-energize
Acquiring information: Sensing vs. Intuition • Sensing - a preference for: • gathering facts and details • focussing on information from the five senses • an orientation to the present rather than the future • being patient with routine tasks but less patient with complexity • concentration on specific details of a task or problem rather than the big picture
Acquiring information: Intuition vs. Sensing • Intuition - a preference for: • looking for patterns and relationships • focussing on what lies beyond the surface • an orientation towards the future rather than the here and now • being patient with complexity but less patient with routine • concentrating on the big picture rather than the details
Processing information: Thinking vs. Feeling • Thinking - a preference for: • basing decisions upon logical analysis and cause and effect reasoning rather than personal values and beliefs • being analytical • being perceived as reasonable by others • wanting things to be fair even at the expense of harmony
Processing information: Feeling vs. Thinking • Feeling - a preference for: • Basing decisions upon personal values and beliefs rather than logical analysis • being sympathetic rather than analytical • being perceived as compassionate • wanting a harmonious outcome even at the expense of equity and fairness
Decision making: Judging vs. Perceiving • Judging - a preference for: • making decisions and obtaining closure • being systematic and keeping to a schedule • completing one project before starting another • committing to plans or decisions swiftly • Finishing tasks before deadlines
Decision making: Perceiving vs. Judging • Judging - a preference for: • taking in all available information before deciding • being spontaneous and casual • working on multiple projects simultaneously • being flexible, keeping options open • finishing tasks at deadline
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator • Measurement of four dimensions giving 16 possible cognitive styles (e.g. INTP, ESFJ etc.) • Aid for improving work team functioning • Remember, no one type is ideal or best • Even people who are the same ‘type’ are different - there are many other dimensions of personality • The MBTI only measures preferences not abilities or aptitudes.