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ECN741: Urban Economics

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ECN741: Urban Economics

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  1. ECN741: Urban Economics Residential Segregation: Measurement, Causes, Consequences Professor John Yinger, The Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 2019

  2. Residential Segregation • Class Outline • 1. Measurement of Segregation • 2. Causes of Segregation • 3. Consequences of Segregation

  3. Residential Segregation • Survey • Note: An excellent survey of the literature is: • Leah P. Boustan, "Racial Residential Segregation in American Cities." in Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning, eds. Nancy Brooks, Kieran Donaghy and GerritKnaap. Oxford University Press, 2011. • Available at: http://www.princeton.edu/~lboustan/research_pdfs/research13_handbook.pdf

  4. Residential Segregation • Class Outline • 1. Measurement of Segregation • 2. Causes of Segregation • 3. Consequences of Segregation

  5. Residential Segregation • Definition of Segregation • Segregation is the physical separation of different groups = a synonym for sorting. • We focus on racial and ethnic residential segregation, but many other kinds of segregation exist (in schools, firms, occupations, etc.). • Segregation is a complex social phenomenon, with many different dimensions.

  6. Residential Segregation • Measures of Segregation • Dissimilarity Index: Evenness of segregation • Isolation Index: Potential contact between groups • Delta Index: Relative physical space occupied • Centralization Index: Degree to which a group lives near the CBD • Proximity Index: Degree to which a group lives in contiguous areas

  7. Residential Segregation • The Dissimilarity Index • The dissimilarity index, D, is the most common measure of discrimination. • It indicates the share of either group that would have to move to reach an even distribution. • Its formula is:

  8. Residential Segregation • Black-White Segregation • In the case of black-white segregation, over the last 40 years we have seen declines in segregation measured by • Dissimilarity Index • Isolation Index • And little change in segregation (up to 2000) using • Delta Index • Centralization Index • Proximity Index

  9. Residential Segregation • Segregation Indexes for Blacks Source: Glaeser/Vigdor, 2012, http://www.manhattan-institute.org/pdf/cr_66.pdf

  10. Residential Segregation • Segregation Indexes for Blacks Source: Glaeser/Vigdor

  11. Residential Segregation Glaeser/Vigdor based on census tracts; Frey (cite on next slide) based on census block-groups.

  12. Residential Segregation • Most Segregated Areas for Blacks Source: Frey, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/dis/census/segregation2010.html

  13. Residential Segregation • Perspective on Black-White Segregation • Comparisons with 1900 are misleading; social segregation did not require residential segregation back then. • As late as the 1960s, many southern cities had low segregation indexes because black workers lived close to the white homes in which they worked. • Cities with large black populations have seen relatively little decline in segregation. • Black-white segregation is still much greater than Hispanic/non-Hispanic or Asian/white segregation.

  14. Residential Segregation • Hispanic/Non-Hispanic-White Segregation • In the case of Hispanic/white segregation, the decades preceding 2000 saw increases in segregation measured by • Dissimilarity Index • Isolation Index • And little change in segregation using • Delta Index • Centralization Index • Proximity Index

  15. Residential Segregation • Dissimilarity Index for Hispanics (Frey)

  16. Residential Segregation • Perspective on Hispanic Segregation • Segregation between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites appears to be linked to immigration. • Low-income immigrants from non-English-speaking countries tend to move into neighborhoods where they can find other people who speak the same language and institutions with which they are familiar, such as certain churches or certain types of restaurants. • The period between 2000 and 2010 witnessed extensive immigration into the U.S. from Mexico, Central America, and South America, thereby increasing Hispanic segregation.

  17. Residential Segregation • Dissimilarity Index for Asians (Frey)

  18. Residential Segregation • Class Outline • 1. Measurement of Segregation • 2. Causes of Segregation • 3. Consequences of Segregation

  19. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation • Discrimination • Preferences (which are based on experiences) • Income and wealth differences (which reflect past and current discrimination)

  20. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation: Discrimination • Discrimination obviously can contribute to segregation. • Specifically, segregation is reinforced by • Denial of information about available housing, • Racial/ethnic steering, • Lack of cooperation in completing transactions.

  21. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation: Government Discrimination • Governmental actions also have led to segregation. See Rothstein (The Color of Law). • Racial zoning (before 1917) • Enforcing racial restrictive covenants (before 1948) • Explicit redlining in federal loan programs (until the 1960s) • Discriminatory siting and admission in federal public housing projects • Failure to outlaw discrimination in housing or, after 1968, to enforce prohibitions

  22. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation: Government Discrimination, Recent Debates • Some scholars have found a lingering effect of redlining associated with government lending in the 1920s and before (on syllabus). • A. Shertzerand R. P. Walsh (ReStat, 2019). • D. Aaronson, D. Hartley,andB. Mazumder (Chicago Fed Working Paper. 2019). Available at: https://www.chicagofed.org/publications/working-papers/2017/wp2017-12 . • There is a debate about the importance of government actions versus prejudice and discrimination. • An op-ed by Boustan: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/15/opinion/white-flight.html • A letter in response from Rothstein: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/24/opinion/dissecting-white-flight.html

  23. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation: Attitudes • Historically, prejudice has been a powerful cause of segregation. • Boustan (QJE, February 2010) finds that • “The distinctive American pattern—in which blacks live in cities and whites in suburbs—was enhanced by a large black migration from the rural South. I show that whites responded to this black influx by leaving cities and rule out an indirect effect on housing prices as a sole cause. I instrument for changes in black population by using local economic conditions to predict black migration from southern states and assigning predicted flows to northern cities according to established settlement patterns. The best causal estimates imply that each black arrival led to 2.7 white departures.”

  24. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation: Attitudes, Continued • An excellent article by Ihlanfeldt and Scafidi (Housing Studies, May 2004; data from Atlanta, Boston, and LA) examines the simultaneity between racial attitudes and racial segregation. • Whites’ neighborhood racial preferences play an important role in explaining the racial composition of their neighborhoods. • Inter-racial contact in neighborhoods and workplaces leads to a greater willingness among whites to live with blacks.

  25. Cleveland Application

  26. Residential Segregation

  27. Residential Segregation

  28. Residential Segregation

  29. Residential Segregation

  30. Residential Segregation • Causes of Segregation: Income • Income sorting and segregation • The basic logic of income-taste sorting suggests that socio-economic differences between groups will contribute to residential segregation. • A study of the San Francisco area (Bayer, McMillan, Rueben, JUE, November 2004) finds that education, income, language, and immigration status, explain • Almost 95% of segregation for Hispanic households • Over 50% of segregation Asian households, and • Only 30% of segregation for Black households.

  31. Residential Segregation • Class Outline • 1. Measurement of Segregation • 2. Causes of Segregation • 3. Consequences of Segregation

  32. Residential Segregation • Consequences of Segregation: • Differences in opportunities. • Persistence of stereotypes and prejudice. • Segregation is an outcome that becomes a cause!

  33. Residential Segregation • Segregation and Opportunities • Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis • Kain, QJE, May 1968: High unemployment among blacks is due to mismatch between their residences and location of jobs—and to factors maintaining segregation. • Job suburbanization is a long-run trend. • Without barriers, all households could adjust to changes in job location, but blacks have a harder time making this adjustment that whites because they have less information about suburban housing and face housing discrimination.

  34. Residential Segregation • Segregation and Opportunities • Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis, 2 • Ihlanfeldt and Sjoquist (AER, March 1990) find that black youth (who do not pick their housing location) have much lower job access than white youth, which explains one-third or more of their higher unemployment rate. • But recent evidence indicates that having more jobs held by whites nearby does not lower black unemployment (Hellerstein, Neumark, and McInerney, JUE, September 2008)—a sign of discrimination in labor markets.

  35. Residential Segregation • Segregation and Opportunities, Cont. • Another approach is to determine whether blacks have poorer socio-economic outcomes in urban areas with higher levels of segregation (Cutler and Glaeser, QJE, August 1997). • Higher segregation leads to larger white-black gaps in employment, earnings, not being a single mother, and high-school graduation. • A one-standard deviation decrease in segregation would cut the black-white gap on most outcomes by one-third.

  36. Residential Segregation • Segregation and Prejudice • Remember the evidence from Ihlanfeldt and Scafidi: • Inter-racial contact in neighborhoods and workplaces leads to a greater willingness among whites to live with blacks. • It follows that a lack of contact undermines the willingness of whites to live with blacks.