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Psych 101 Review 4

Psych 101 Review 4. Psychological Disorders, Therapy Techniques and Social Psychology. Psychological Disorders. Mental Health Professionals: Clinical Psychologists: specializes in the psychological treatment of mental disorders; PhD in psychology- does not prescribe drugs

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Psych 101 Review 4

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  1. Psych 101 Review 4 Psychological Disorders, Therapy Techniques and Social Psychology

  2. Psychological Disorders • Mental Health Professionals: • Clinical Psychologists: specializes in the psychological treatment of mental disorders; PhD in psychology- does not prescribe drugs • Psychiatrist- specializes in biological treatment of mental disorders (prescribes drugs); PhD and M.D. • Problem: diagnosing mental disorders • Is the patient mentally ill? • What form of mental illness does the patient suffer from?

  3. DSM-IV • DSM: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders • Provides diagnostic criteria for all acknowledged syndromes of mental illness • Rosenhan (1973) • Conclusion: observer and context

  4. Abnormality • Deviations from statistical norms • Very infrequent or rare behavior • Prob: positive behaviors also! • Deviations from social norms • Diverges from socially accepted norms • Prob: culture! • Maladaptiveness of behavior • Negative consequences for themselves • Prob: we must do uncomfortable things sometimes

  5. Mood Disorders • Types: • Unipolar- major depressive disorder • Straight down • Bipolar- manic depressive disorder • Mood swings in both directions

  6. Major Depression • “Normal” Depression • Tied to specific eliciting event • Short duration: 2-3 weeks or less • “Major” Depression • No obvious eliciting event • Long duration (months or years) • Severity • Incidence: men< women • 4% of world’s population

  7. Major Depression • Cause and Treatment • Bio: chemical imbalance in the brain- underactive serotonin system • MAO inhibitors • Tears apart NT molecules in synapse • Tricyclics • Partially block re-uptake of NTs • 2nd gen: more specific to Se • SSRIs • Specific re-uptake inhibitor

  8. Schizophrenia Severe psychotic disorder of thoughts; thought and behavior are ‘divorced’ from reality Onset often occurs in young adulthood or adolescence Incidence rates: 1% of general pop

  9. Schizophrenia • Diagnostic Criteria: • Bizarre delusions • Paranoia • Auditory hallucinations • Disorders of logical thought • Catatonia or bizarre movements • Inappropriate emotional response

  10. Schizophrenia • Positive Type • ‘positive-symptoms’ • Hallucinations • Delusions • Thought disorders • Negative Type • ‘negative-symptoms’ • Flat emotions • Impaired attention • Poor social adjustment

  11. Schizophrenia • Genetic predisposition + environmental stressor = schizophrenia • Genetic Factors • Dopamine hypothesis • Schizophrenia caused by a hyperactive dopamine system • Treatment: administer drugs that reduce activity of DA system

  12. Phobias • Phobias- irrational fears • Simple: claustrophobia, aerophobia, acrophobia, arachibutyphobia, belonaphobia, taphophobia • More complex: agoraphobia- fear of contact with other people or open spaces • Hypochondriasis: excessive fear of disease • OCD

  13. Therapy • Psychological treatment of psychological problems/disorders • Not effective for psychosis • Psychoanalytic Therapy • Probs caused by repressed thoughts/impulses/conflicts • Allow impulses to enter consciousness to work through them • Tools and Methods: • Free associations • Dream analysis • Analysis of everyday behavior-malepropisms • Projective tests • Examination of resistance

  14. Therapy • Behavior Therapy • Maladaptive learned responses to stimuli • Client unlearns association between stimuli and maladaptive response • Tools and methods • Systematic desensitization • Aversive conditioning

  15. Therapy • Humanistic (Client-centered) therapy • Result from low self esteem • Client clarify feelings and strive to fulfill potential – self actualization • Tools and methods • Non-directive counseling: genuineness, empathy, unconditional positive regard

  16. Therapy • Perls ‘Gestalt’ Therapy • Self-actualization blocked when important thoughts, emotions and wishes remain outside our awareness • Pre-occupation with social roles and expectations • Frustrate person to get them to stop being a ‘phony’ • Tools and methods: • Pay attention to non-verbal behavior • Point out phony behavior • Focus on ‘here and now’ • ‘empty chair’ trick- direct confrontation with problem • Ask client to act/behave in a manner opposite to the way s/he actually is

  17. Therapy • Cognitive Therapy • Counterproductive habits of thought • Help client eliminate bad habits of thought based on irrational beliefs • Exs: all or nothing thinking, overgeneralizations, disqualifying the positive, mind reading, catastrophizing, emotional reasoning • Tools and methods: • Cognitive restructuring • Self-instructional training: ‘self-talk’

  18. Therapy • Cognitive Behavioral therapy • Currently the most popular form of therapy • Combines cognitive and behavioral therapy with an emphasis on the cognitive aspects

  19. Social Psychology • The study of social influences on behavior and of social relations between people • A. Love • Romantic love: an aroused state of an intense absorption in another person • Compassionate love: the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply interrelated

  20. Dating • Men fall in love more quickly than women and women are more likely to end a relationship than are men • Dyadic factors for breaking up: • Bored with relationship- 76% • Differences in interests- 72%-61% • Non-dyadic Factors: • Women’s desire to be independent • Man’s desire to be independent

  21. Marriage and Divorce • The number of people getting married has steadily declined over the past 50 years • The age of people getting married has steadily increased of the past 50 years • Divorce: • Communication problems- 83% • Unrealistic expectations- 55%

  22. Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations • Zimbardo Prison study • Results: • Guards became abusive and degrading • Prisoners became passive and obedient; some of them broke down emotionally • Grad students, parents, chaplain conformed to the situation and accepted without question! • Conclusion: our behavior is strongly influenced by the social roles/situations we find ourselves in

  23. Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations • Milgram’s Study: the tendency to obey authority • “Teachers” (subjects) were asked to administer very strong shocks to innocent “learners’ • Manipulate distance between ‘Teacher’ subject and ‘victim’ learner • Compliance increases • Manipulate distance btwn ‘teacher’ subject and authority figure • Compliance decreases

  24. Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations • Direct vs. Indirect action • Direct action: subject must push shock button • Indirect action: subject only reads, no shock button • Effects of age, gender, educational level and occupation of subject • no effect • All kinds of people are willing to obey authority figures, even when that results in harm to others

  25. Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations • Nurse experiment • Broke all 3 cardinal rules! • “the doctor is always right” • Subway experiment • When asked to violate a simple social rule, students and even Milgram found it impossible!

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