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Psych 101: Review Session. Sara J. Buhl. Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology. Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology. psychological factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity, and exercise aims to enhance individual and team performance managing emotions

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sport exercise health psychology1
Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology
  • psychological factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity, and exercise
  • aims to enhance individual and team performance
  • managing emotions
  • minimizing the psychological effects of injury and poor performance
sport exercise health psychology2
Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology
  • skills taught:
    • goal setting
    • relaxation
    • visualization
    • self-talk
    • awareness and control
    • concentration
    • confidence
sport exercise health psychology3
Sport, Exercise, & Health Psychology
  • Motivation –
    • intrinsic motivation (inner motivation, e.g., self accomplishment)
    • extrinsic motivation (outer motivation, e.g., money or awards)
  • Attention Focus –
    • Being able to block everything out, e.g., a crowd
fmri in the news
fMRI in the News
  • functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) can decipher the brain's answers to questions in healthy, non-vegetative, participants with 100% accuracy
  • patients believed to be in a vegetative state were scanned using fMRI
    • signs of awareness were detected in 17%

fmri in the news1
fMRI in the News
  • 'Vegetative state' man responds to questions
    • severe head injuries in a car crash
    • believed to be in a vegetative state
    • used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
    • mapped brain activity while asked to answer "yes" or "no" to questions such as "Is your father's name Thomas?"
fmri in the news2
fMRI in the News

The patient communicated answers through brain activity.

survey polls in the news
Survey/Polls in the News
  • “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy
  • Majority of public supports allowing openly gay men and women to serve in the military
  • BUT there is less support for allowing homosexuals to serve openly
  • Why?

survey polls in the news1
Survey/Polls in the News
  • Wording
  • 2 Groups:
    • half asked their opinion on permitting “gay men and lesbians” to serve
      • 70% favored allowing them to serve
      • 60% favored them serving openly
    • half were asked about permitting “homosexuals” to serve
      • 59% favored allowing them to serve
      • 44% favored them serving openly

chapter 1 review
Chapter 1 Review
  • Wilhelm Wundt (Germany)
    • Established the 1st psychology laboratory
      • 1st psychology experiments
    • Emphasis on introspection
      • Examining one’s own emotions and mental processes
  • William James
    • also emphasized introspection
    • Wrote 1st widely recognized text of Psychology
chapter 1 review1
Chapter 1 Review
  • BEHAVIORISM (1920-1960)
    • Science viewed as rooted in observations
  • Famous Behaviorists:
  • John B. Watson
    • Little Albert Study
      • conditioned fear of a white rat in baby Albert
  • B.F. Skinner
    • Studied how consequences shape behavior
    • Pigeons learning to turn/peck by rewarding with food
    • Reinforcement – slot machines “reward” our behavior (putting in coins) by letting us win at various intervals
chapter 1 review2
Chapter 1 Review
  • Hindsight Bias
      • “Hindsight is 20/20”
      • After learning the outcome of a situation, we tend to believe that we knew what would happen all along
chapter 1 review3
Chapter 1 Review
  • Naturalistic Observation
    • Watching & recording behavior in a natural environment
    • Jane Goodall – Chimpanzee observations
  • Correlation
    • Relationship of two or more variables
    • Does not indicate causality
  • Positive or Negative?
  • Positive or Negative?
chapter 1 review4
Chapter 1 Review
  • Experiment
    • one or more factor is manipulated to observe the effect
  • Double Blind Procedure
    • Used in Experiments
    • Both researchers & participants are “blind” (unaware) about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placebo
chapter 1 review5
Chapter 1 Review
  • Experiments manipulate a factor to determine its effect.
  • Independent Variable
    • the factor that is manipulated
    • factor that the researcher controls
  • Dependent Variable
    • the factor that is being measured
    • the outcome of interest
chapter 1 review6
Chapter 1 Review
  • A study indicates that antioxidants found in blueberries may slow down the process of aging. In this study, rats were fed either their standard diet or a diet supplemented by blueberries. After eight weeks, the rats were given memory tests. The rats who had the blueberries added to their diet showed improvement on the memory tests.
    • Independent Variable?
    • Dependent Variable?
chapter 2 review
Chapter 2 Review
  • Dendrite
    • branching extensions of a neuron
    • receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  • Axon
    • the extension of a neuron, through which messages are sent to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  • Myelin Sheath
    • a layer of fatty cells covering the axon of some neurons
    • greatly increases the speed of neural impulses
chapter 2 review1
Chapter 2 Review
  • Neurons (Nerve Cells)
chapter 2 review2
Chapter 2 Review
  • Synapse
    • junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
    • tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap
chapter 2 review3
Chapter 2 Review
  • Central Nervous System (brain & spinal cord)
  • Peripheral Nervous System
    • the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
      • Somatic NS = Voluntary muscle control (skeleton)
      • Autonomic NS = involuntary control of organs & glands
        • Sympathetic Nervous System = part of the autonomic NS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
        • Parasympathetic Nervous System = Part of the autonomic NS that calms the body, conserving its energy
chapter 2 review5
Chapter 2 Review
  • Brainstem
    • the oldest part of the brain
    • responsible for automatic survival functions
  • Medulla
    • base of the brainstem
    • controls heartbeat and breathing
  • Thalamus
    • on top of brainstem
    • receives info from all senses (except smell) and sends it to the correct brain region
  • Reticular Formation
    • a nerve network in the brainstem
    • plays an important role in controlling arousal
chapter 2 review7
Chapter 2 Review
  • Limbic System
    • A group of neural structures in the brain
    • associated with emotions (fear & aggression)
    • associated w/ drives (for food and sex)
chapter 2 review8
Chapter 2 Review
  • Limbic System Includes
    • hippocampus (ch. 8)
    • amygdala
      • linked to emotion
      • influences aggression, rage, & fear
    • hypothalamus
      • also linked to emotion
      • contains a “reward/pleasure” center
        • rats will cross electric grid for stimulation
      • directs several maintenance activities (eating, body temp)
chapter 2 review9
Chapter 2 Review
  • Corpus Callosum - neural fibers that connect the two brain hemispheres and carry messages between them
chapter 2 review the brain language
Chapter 2 Review The brain & language
  • Broca’s Area (1860s)
      • Part of frontal lobe
      • Controls language expression
      • Directs muscle movements involved in speech
      • Damage = difficulty forming words, but still able to sing familiar songs
  • Wernicke’s Area (1870s)
      • Part of temporal lobe
      • Controls language reception
      • Helps us comprehend and express language
      • Damage = speak meaningless words; unable to understand words spoken by others
chapter 4 review
Chapter 4 Review
  • Zygote (conception to 2 weeks)
    • fertilized egg enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division
  • Embryo (2nd through 8th weeks)
    • organs begin to form; heart begins to beat
  • Fetus (9 weeks until birth)
    • looks unmistakably human; organs continue developing
  • Teratogens
    • agents that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm
chapter 4 review1
Chapter 4 Review
  • Piaget’s Stages (Cognitive Development)
    • Sensorimotor (birth – age 2)
      • Object Permanence (know that things still exist even when you can’t see them); Stranger Anxiety
    • Preoperational (age 2 – 6)
      • Pretend Play; Egocentrism (difficulty taking another’s point of view)
    • Concrete Operational (age 7-11)
      • Conservation; Concrete Thinking
    • Formal Operational (age 12 – adult)
      • Abstract thinking
chapter 4 review2
Chapter 4 Review
  • Attachment
    • emotional tie with another person
    • seen in young children when they seek closeness to caregivers and show distress when separated
  • Separation Anxiety
    • distress exhibited when young children are separated from caregivers
  • Stranger Anxiety
    • An infant’s fear of strangers
chapter 4 review3
Chapter 4 Review
  • Attachment Styles:
    • Securely Attached
      • Explore surroundings, play (when mother is present)
      • Distressed when mother leaves; comforted when she returns
    • Insecurely Attached - Ambivalent
      • Less likely to explore and may cling to mother
      • Seem indifferent when mother leaves and returns
    • Insecurely Attached – Avoidant
      • Also less likely to explore and may cling to mother
      • May cry loudly and remain upset when mother leaves and returns
chapter 4 review4
Chapter 4 Review
  • Harlow Experiments (1950s)
    • Reared monkeys with two artificial mothers
      • One w/ bare wire and feeding bottle
      • One w/ soft cloth and no bottle
    • Found that monkeys preferred contact with the cloth mother even though they got their food from the wire mother