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Chapter 12. Broadcast journalism: the world’s town crier. Introduction - aims of this lecture are to help you understand:. Some basic concepts of media convergence The ABC Broadcast history Codes of conduct and broadcast regulation Radio and television news reporting Broadcast terminology.

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chapter 12

Chapter 12

Broadcast journalism: the world’s town crier

introduction aims of this lecture are to help you understand
Introduction - aims of this lecture are to help you understand:
  • Some basic concepts of media convergence
  • The ABC
  • Broadcast history
  • Codes of conduct and broadcast regulation
  • Radio and television news reporting
  • Broadcast terminology
broadcast journalists
Broadcast journalists
  • Often start as print journalists
  • Their enemy is time – stories are short
  • Adept at matching sound and visuals
  • Less skill than other journalists – keep it simple?
  • They often set the day’s news agenda
  • Broadcast journalists as ‘warmer’/more trustworthy?
the abc
The ABC
  • First radio broadcast in 1932, a news editor appointed 1934. ABC TV in 1956
  • Solid growth - 94 ABC radio stations by 1982
  • ABA Act 1946 – ABC independent news - journalists expected to be impartial
  • ABC set the benchmark for journalistic standards, still most trusted media company
  • Funding issues/alleged bias
other broadcast landmarks
Other broadcast landmarks:
  • ABC’s Four Corners - Australia’s first national current affairs program
  • SBS launched 1978
  • Both public service broadcasters have a self-regulatory code of practice
  • Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 prohibited newspaper, radio, and television proprietors in the same city from holding more than a 15 per cent interest in each other.
regulation
Regulation
  • Airwaves as public property ‘managed’ on behalf of the broadcasters
  • Radio & TV licensed by the ACMA, fines of up to $A200,000 can be imposed for breaches
  • Broadcast & Internet codes
  • Pay TV has an additional regulator called ASTRA
chequebook journalism
Chequebook journalism
  • ACMA has no policy on chequebook journalism
  • Payment for exclusive stories
  • Do payments affect objectivity?
  • The right to know if a media outlet paid the interviewee
  • Commercial television and women’s magazines the main culprits
news values television style
News values, television style
  • Words and pictures compliment each other
  • Leave a lasting impression (the main pint of the story) – signposting
  • Presentation affected by audience expectations
  • News affected by supporting material
  • Strong images often air first
audiences
Audiences
  • Large audience numbers = high ratings, high ratings = good advertising revenue
  • ABC runs more ‘serious’ stories than its commercial rivals?
  • Commercial news/entertainment nexus
  • Commercial current affairs programs rely on sensationalism and emotion, not in-depth research?
reporting for radio
Reporting for radio
  • Trendsetters for original stories?
  • Radio reporters make snap decisions about news values and what to air
  • Intros are very important
  • Content has to be well edited
  • Storylines regularly updated – what has happened since first bulletin
  • Good voice skills required
common speech problems
Common speech problems:
  • Speaking too slowly or quickly
  • Emphasising the wrong words
  • Limited vocal range
  • Tones that are nasal, or lacking in richness
  • Stumbling over words
  • Breathlessness, or breathing loudly
  • Sounding unnatural
key broadcast definitions
Key broadcast definitions:
  • Voicer or voice-over – what the reporter writes and speaks, live or recorded
  • Actuality – natural sounds/voice of interviewee
  • Grab/soundbite/talking head – comment from an interviewee
  • Lead – first paragraph, sets context
  • Intro – summary often read before video
  • Talent – person being interviewed
key broadcast definitions1
Key broadcast definitions:
  • Throw – introducing the reporter or talent
  • Sign-off – completes the package
  • Worder – script read by newsreader, no visuals
  • Reader copy – script read by the presenter
  • Wrap – two or more stories packaged together
broadcast writing style
Broadcast writing style
  • About three words per second
  • …indicates a pause
  • Use capital letters for names of people or organisations
  • Underline or capitalise for emphasis
  • Present tense
  • Write the way people speak
  • Short sentences, 10 to 20 words
television terminology
Television terminology
  • Cutaway – brief close-up
  • Close-ups/CU/one shot – tightly framed shot of the interviewee
  • Two-shot – shows both the reporter and the talent
  • Noddy – a shot of the reporter nodding, as if listening
the newsroom
The newsroom
  • Television journalists often involved in production process:
        • they may review recordings and select video footage
        • Footage time coded and labelled
  • Digital editing, audio and visual mixing
  • Radio and TV newsrooms have editing and writing software
the power of television
The power of television
  • Television was the twentieth century’s town crier
  • It influences communities
  • Combines words and images for maximum impact
  • Gives journalism a glamorous image?
  • Embedded journalists
  • Footage from citizen-journalists