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to the Human Body:

An Introduction. to the Human Body:. Ch 1. Anatomy: Study of the structure of body parts Gross- large body structures Regional- all parts in a specific region Developmental- structural changes over a life time Embryology- developmental changes that occur before birth.

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to the Human Body:

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  1. An Introduction to the Human Body: Ch 1

  2. Anatomy: • Study of the structure of • body parts • Gross- large body structures • Regional- all parts in • a specific region • Developmental- structural • changes over a life time • Embryology- developmental • changes that occur before birth • Physiology: • Study of the body’s function • Cardiovascular • Renal • Reproductive • Neurophysiology Complementarity of structure and function

  3. Levels of Structural Organization • Atoms • Molecules • Organelles • Cells • Tissues • Organs • Organ Systems • Organism

  4. DNA molecule carbon atom organelle cell tissue organism organ system organ Levels of Structural Organization

  5. Basic Life Processes • Metabolism • Responsiveness • Movement • Growth • Differentiation • Reproduction

  6. Metabolism • The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc. • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules

  7. Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy

  8. Homeostasis • All organisms must maintain a constant internal environment to function properly • Temperature • pH • Salinity • Fluid levels

  9. Homeostasis Relatively stable internal environment

  10. Negative Feedback vs Positive Feedback

  11. Feedback Systems • Receptor • Control center • Effector

  12. Negative Feedback Body Temperature Regulation

  13. Negative Feedback Blood Sugar Levels

  14. Positive Feedback 1 Break or tearoccurs in bloodvessel wall. Positive feedbackcycle is initiated. 3 2 Releasedchemicalsattract moreplatelets. Plateletsadhere to siteand releasechemicals. Positivefeedbackloop Feedback cycle endswhen plug is formed. 4 Platelet plugforms.

  15. Positive Feedback Oxytocin

  16. Homeostasic Imbalance Moderate imbalance: • Disease • Disorder Severe imbalance: • Death

  17. Hair Nails Skin (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands. Figure 1.3a

  18. Bones Joint (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals. Figure 1.3b

  19. Skeletal muscles (c)Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Main- tains posture, and produces heat. Figure 1.3c

  20. Brain Nerves Spinal cord (d) Nervous System As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. Figure 1.3d

  21. Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells. Figure 1.3e

  22. Heart Blood vessels (f) Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, whichcarries oxygen, carbon dioxide,nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumpsblood. Figure 1.3f

  23. Red bone marrow Thymus Lymphatic vessels Thoracic duct Spleen Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body. Figure 1.3g

  24. Nasal cavity Pharynx Bronchus Larynx Trachea Lung (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs. Figure 1.3h

  25. Oral cavity Esophagus Liver Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus (i) Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces. Figure 1.3i

  26. Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra (j) Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood. Figure 1.3j

  27. Mammary glands (in breasts) Prostate gland Ovary Penis Ductus deferens Testis Uterine tube Scrotum Uterus Vagina (l) Female Reproductive System (k) Male Reproductive System Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. Figure 1.3k-l

  28. Orientation & Directional Terms

  29. Orientation & Directional Terms

  30. Body Planes Superior Medial & Lateral Frontal plane oblique Distal Transverse plane Proximal Posterior Inferior Anterior Midsagittal plane

  31. Dorsal & Ventral Body Cavities

  32. Membranes • Organs surrounded by double layer membrane called serosa or serous membrane • Composed mostly of simple squamous epithelia and a little connective tissue • Filled with serous fluid- function reduce friction • Parietal (outer) vs Visceral (inner)-- both secrete serous fluid • heart: parietal pericardiumvisceral pericardium • lungs: parietal pleuravisceral pleura • abdominopelvic: parietal peritoneumvisceral peritoneum • Diseases: • pleurisyinflammation of pleura • peritonitisinflammation of peritonea • pericarditis inflammation of pericardia • inflammation - less serous fluid

  33. Membranes

  34. Membranes Mucous

  35. Membranes Serous: pericardium, pleura, peritoneum Parietal pericardium Serous fluid Visceral pericardium

  36. Membranes Cutaneous

  37. Membranes Synovial

  38. Abdominopelvic Regions

  39. Abdominopelvic Regions • Hypogastric- large intestine, sm intestine, bladder • Umbilical- sm and lg intestine • Epigastric- stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas • Right hypochondriac- liver • Left hypochondriac- stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas • Right lumbar- large and small intestine • Left lumbar- large and small intestine • Right iliac- large intestine, cecum • Left iliac- large intestine

  40. Medical History

  41. Ancient Greece • Hippocrates (460 – 370? B.C.) • Greek physician • Diseases have natural causes • Rejected view that disease caused by evil spirits • Believed that the brain was area of higher thought and emotion, not heart • Program for good health: rest, good nutrition, and exercise. • Started “Western Medicine”

  42. Hippocrates’ Four Humors • Blood: considered to be made by the liver. • Phlegm: associated with the lungs. • Yellow bile: associated with the gall bladder. • Black bile: associated with the spleen.

  43. Imbalances of the Humors Cause Disease • Sanguine:Disease, excess blood • Phlegmatic:Disease, excess phlegm • Choleric:Disease, excess yellow bile • Melancholic:Disease, excess black bile

  44. Roman Times • Galen (130 - 200 A.D.) • Anatomy & Physiology • disease resulted from an internal imbalance of the four humors • Mistakes in understanding circulation • Research based on ape dissection • Textbook used for 1000 years

  45. Dark Ages- 200 to 1200 A.D. • Sad time • Little new knowledge • Taboo against dissecting human cadavers continued • Avoided actual involvement • Authority prevails

  46. Renaissance • da Vinci(1452-1515) • Anatomy & Physiology

  47. Renaissance • Vesalius (1514-1564) • Anatomy & Physiology • Followed Galen’s writings, but later found he was wrong Vesalius dissects a female cadaver in his anatomy lab

  48. Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius A late thirteenth-century illustration of the venous system within the body.

  49. Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius This early representation (c. 1300) of a dissection shows a surgeon and a monk.

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