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Particle Accelerators

Particle Accelerators

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Particle Accelerators

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  1. Particle Accelerators Atkinson

  2. A particle accelerator is designed 'to speed up and increase the energy of a beam of particles by generating electric fields that accelerate the particles, and magnetic fields that steer and focus them.'

  3. Linear Accelerators In linear accelerators, particles are accelerated in a straight line, often with a target at one to create a collision The size of linear accelerators varies greatly A cathode ray tube is small enough to fit inside of a television and computers Stanford’s linear accelerator is two miles long http://www.exploratorium.edu/origins/cern/tools/linac.html

  4. Cathode Ray Tube http://science.howstuffworks.com/atom-smasher2.htm

  5. From small acorns...

  6. BUT........... • Small energy 1MeV • ....therefore... Not many particle produced.

  7. IF... • We had LARGE amounts of energy, that large amount of energy can be converted to mass. Therefore more particles! (particle zoo)

  8. Ernest O. Lawrence

  9. An Early Accelerator In 1929, Ernest Lawrence developed the first circular accelerator, only 4 inches in diameter, and contained two D-shaped magnets. First circular particle accelerator

  10. First circular particle accelerator

  11. Magnetic fields confine and control the postition of the particle beams • Electric fields are used repeatedly to accelerate the particles

  12. e e -1000 V +1000 V +1000 V -1000 V Circular Accelerator Electron “ramps up”to full energy over manyturns! Accelerating cavities(many of them !!!) Circular Accelerator Linear Accelerator

  13. Circular Accelerator • Particles go round & round.With each turn, they gainmore & more energy becauseof the accelerating cavities. • Particles are kept in a circle by powerful magnetswhich bend their direction !!! • The magnets “bending power”has to increase as the particlesenergy increases (big challenge).. • The energy limit is restrictedby our ability to keep them goingin a circle… Circular Accelerator

  14. Particle Acceleration • We are able to accelerate electrons because they have electriccharge, and are attracted to a “plate” which has a high POSITIVEvoltage. • Using similar principles, we can also accelerate positively charged particles, like protons. • You just need to flip the positive & negative voltages !!!. • We can therefore also accelerate positrons (positively chargedelectrons). All the voltages are just reversed !! • So, we only know how to accelrate things which have electriccharge ! • How do we create positrons?

  15. e Creating Antiparticles e - this way target e+ e- e- Photonsare unaffectedby a magnet e+ e- e+ this way Using magnets, the negative electrons can be bent one wayand the positrons bent the other way, thus “separating” them fromeach other ! Once separated, the positrons can be “focused” and accelerated !

  16. Circular Accelerator positrons E ~ 5 [MeV]per beam Because electrons and positrons have the samemass, but opposite charge,they can both be accelerated in the same circularaccelerator !! electrons

  17. Collision !!!!! Around the collisionpoint, we build adetector to detect theparticles coming out.Using these detectors, we measure: 1. Momentum2. Type of particle3. Charge+ many other quantities Collisionpoint! CLEO positrons E ~ 5 [MeV]per beam electrons

  18. e+ e- p p0 p+ p0 Boom p p - p0 Detector There are several concentric layers to this detector. Each layer serves a specific function: 1. Tracking – map out the flight path of the particle 2. Calorimeter – measure the energy of photons 3. Particle identification: detectors capable of distinguishing pions from protons from kaons, etc (I won’t cover this)…

  19. Cms detector - CERN

  20. ATLAS - CERN

  21. Tracking As charged particle passes through gas, it ionizes the gas.This creates “free” electrons which are attracted toward the 1500 V wireGenerates a voltage pulse !You know thatthis wire “saw”a charged particle ! ~1 mm sep. Box filled with gas,perhaps Argon. A charged particle, likea proton, or p+ Wires at+1500 V

  22. Detecting Particles • Tracking: Detectors are inside a HUGE magnet. Measure charge by the direction the particle curves Measure momentum by how much it curves. If it curves alot  low momentum If it only curves a little  high momentum • Calorimetry Measure energy of photons, electrons also! • Particle Identification: I skipped this… Allows you to tell what kind of particle it is…

  23. CERN 1954

  24. Probably the best known particle accelerator in the world… Image courtesy of CERN The Large HadronCollider

  25. Birth of the WORLD WIDE WEB • Tim Berners-Lee, a British scientist at CERN, invented the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1989. The web was originally conceived and developed to meet the demand for automatic information-sharing between scientists in universities and institutes around the world. • The first website at CERN - and in the world - was dedicated to the World Wide Web project itself and was hosted on Berners-Lee's NeXT computer. The website described the basic features of the web; how to access other people's documents and how to set up your own server. The NeXT machine - the original web server - is still at CERN.

  26. The first web site • http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html

  27. Linear Vs Circular