We’ve talked about particles, charged particles...so what could we learn about…Particle accelerators? Placemat
You have 3 minutes to write down as much as you can. What could we learn about particle accelerators? What do you want to know?
You will now take it in turns to discuss your thoughts. Discuss, explaining your reasoning Once you have reached agreement, write the two questions in the centre Your goal is to agree on the two questions you think it is most important to explore in this section. You must all be able to explain the group’s reasoning.
As we progress through the unit, note down questions that you would ask a particle physicist if you met one.
Probably the best known particle accelerator in the world… Image courtesy of CERN The Large HadronCollider
How much?!!!?!?!?!?!?!?! £2.6 billion pounds That’s £2.1 billion for the collider and £575 million for the detectors.
But let’s get a handle on that number. The cost is shared by the 20 member states of Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN). The UK’s direct contribution to the LHC is £34 million per year (that’s 55p per person in the UK).
Compare that with… £431 million
Compare that with… £850 billion
Compare that with… £692 million
Compare that with… £95.6 million
Compare that with… £365 million
The Story of cern: a 50 (56!) year journey to the heart of the matter • What is this story? • One is the will to show that after the devastation caused by the world’s first atomic bomb in 1945, physics research could be used to do something for peace. • It is a story, in the planning and throughout its 56-year history, of pushing technology and human ingenuity to the limits.
The Story of cern: a 50 (56!) year journey to the heart of the matter • What is this story? • A story of the power of science to overcome physical, political and religious boundaries.
The Story of cern: a 50 (56!) year journey to the heart of the matter • What is this story? • A story of that tells us that science is alive. And it matters. • And that all that is needed for creative thinking is freedom.
Information to get your head round! • At the moment of impact of the particles, a previously unachievable temperature is reached. • Protons (hadrons) are approaching the speed of light. • Particles are released that have not existed in a free state since the Big Bang.
Some things to get your head round • Of all of the information generated, anywhere in the world, in any format, 1% of it comes from the LHC. • In 2004, this required 30,000–40,000 of the high spec PCs at CERN itself, plus 10–12 major centres around the world and 50–60 smaller centres. Now you perhaps understand why they needed to invent the world wide web!
Have you used a particle accelerator? • The simplest type of particle accelerator forms the basis of traditional CRT television and computer monitor technology. • The cathode-ray tube we have used in the lab is a particle accelerator. On a much smaller scale than CERN of course!
What is a particle accelerator? • A particle accelerator is designed 'to speed up and increase the energy of a beam of particles by generating electric fields that accelerate the particles, and magnetic fields that steer and focus them.' • 'Accelerators were invented to provide energetic particles to investigate the structure of the atomic nucleus.' Explanations courtesy of CERN. http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/research/Accelerator-en.html
How did we get to where we are now? Read and discuss the History Highlights from http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/about/History54-en.html Put together a glossary of scientific terms and their meanings – include a reference for each one.
Control the lhc http://microcosm.web.cern.ch/microcosm/LHCGame/LHCGame.html Image courtesy of CERN
Building a particle accelerator Can you persuade the governments of the world to fund your new accelerator? You must submit a bid (in electronic form) that is thoroughly researched, investigated and costed. Image courtesy of CERN
Your bid will include… an electronic presentation, fully referenced. Consider the use of images and multimedia (eg video files) to support your case. Image courtesy of CERN
Include a scientific explanation, with clear diagrams, of the operation of your accelerator. Include details of each of the basic parts of an accelerator and what it does. Explain the physics! Image courtesy of CERN
Include a case for support, including the purpose and benefits of the particle accelerator, and historical information. eg a similar accelerator which cost £x in 19xx operated successfully for 25 years. Image courtesy of CERN
The purpose of the task • Quality information, referenced and cros-referenced. • Scientific explanations of the operation of particle accelerators. • Numbers! Lengths, strengths and comparisons to allow us to get a handle on the numbers. • Understanding the basics of the operation of particle accelerators.
What are You bidding for? • Group A: A synchrotron for medical applications • Group B: A cyclotron for cancer treatment (proton therapy) and PET imaging • Group C: A linear accelerator (LINAC) • Group D: A cyclotron for nuclear physics research • Group E: A synchrotron for life science and materials research applications
Hints • CERN is a high-quality, cutting-edge source of information. The website includes simulations, videos and lots of other resources • The UK’s Diamond Light Source particle accelerator http://insidediamond.orgalso has high-quality information on its general website and in the education section. • Stanford University (home of the SLAC) has a virtual visitor centre http://www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/ • Fermilab – anatomy of a detector and much more! (fermilab)
Don’t forget… • Are there questions to which you just cannot find the answer? • Would you like some help from a particle physicist? • Write your questions in your jotter.
Probably the best-known particle accelerator in the world… Image courtesy of CERN The Large HadronCollider http://lhc-milestones.web.cern.ch/LHC-Milestones/Flash/LHCMilestones-en.html
And the future…? CLIC The Compact Linear Collider http://eucard.web.cern.ch/EuCARD/news/newsletters/issue06/article2.html