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Emotions PowerPoint Presentation

Emotions

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Emotions

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  1. Emotions

  2. Lecture contents • Basic emotions • E.g., Izard’s DET • Two emotion/motivation frameworks • E.g., Carver & White’s BIS/BAS scales • Emotion regulation

  3. Izard’s Differential Emotions Theory (DET) • Each basic (discrete) emotion has three components: • Neural • Motor-expressive • Mental

  4. Izard et al. (1993) • How often in your daily life do you [mothers in the first 3 years after childbirth] feel:

  5. “Five” features of emotions (Izard et al., 1993) • 1) Motivational • Selective perception • Cognition selecting • 2) Continuity and stability • 3) Individual difference threshholds/personalities • 4) Networks with other emotions, e.g., sadness-anger • 5) Networks with cognition-netweorks (I.e., schema) • 6) Situation-emotion-cognition links  Action tendencies  Personality traits

  6. Behavioural Approach/Inhibition Systems BIS/BAS: Carver & White (1994) • Centrality of positive/approach and negative/avoidance. • Positive and negative affect as independent dimensions (as individual difference variables).

  7. Russell’s (1980) Circumplex model of affect

  8. Gross (1999): 5 features of emotion regulation • 1) Individual differences in situation selection. • 2) Situation modification. • 3) Attentional deployment. • 4) Meaning construal. • 5) Emotion expression modulation.

  9. Lazarus & Folkman (1984)

  10. Learn how to relax

  11. Ways of coping scale (revised)(Folkman et al., 1986) • Confrontive Coping • Stood my ground and fought for what I wanted. • Distancing • Made light of the situation; Refused to get too serious about it. • Self-Controlling • I tried to keep my feelings to myself. • Seeking Social Support • Talked to someone to find out more about the situation. • Accepting Responsibility • Criticised or lectured myself. • Escape-Avoidance • Wished that the situation would go away or somehow be over with. • Planful Problem Solving • I knew what had to be done, so I doubled my efforts to make things work. • Positive Reappraisal • Changed or grew as a person in a good way.

  12. COPE(Carver et al., 1989) • Problem focused coping • Active coping • Planning • Suppression of competing activities • Restraint coping • Seeking of instrumental social support • Emotion focused coping • Seeking of emotional social support • Positive reinterpretation • Acceptance • Denial • Turning to religion • Arguably less useful strategies (in this study) • Focus on and venting of emotions • Behavioural disengagement • Mental disengagement

  13. More on Lazarus on coping and stress • Central role of appriasal means normative and idiosyncratic aspects. • Coping appraisals and strategies each have individual differences and situation-specific aspects. • Can all occur at conscious and/or unconscious levels. • Affected by learning/experience. • Coping is effortful.

  14. Traumatic writing(Pennebaker et al., 1988) • 20 min writing for 4 days on trauma or trivial topic.