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‘FASTRACK’ BREEDING A TECHNOLOGY FOR THE RAPID IMPROVEMENT OF TREE FRUIT AND OTHER LONG-GENERATION CYCLE SPECIALTY CROPS . A novel technology for speeding the improvement of germplasm and varieties of tree fruits and other long-generation cycle crops. . FRUITING TREES IN ONE YEAR ! .

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

‘FASTRACK’ BREEDING

A TECHNOLOGY FOR THE RAPID IMPROVEMENT OF TREE FRUIT AND OTHER LONG-GENERATION CYCLE SPECIALTY CROPS

A novel technology for speeding the improvement of germplasm and varieties of tree fruits and other long-generation cycle crops.

FRUITING TREES IN ONE YEAR !

slide2

THE PROBLEM:

  • Fruit trees like peach, plum, apricot and cherry, need to grow for at least three years and sometimes more than seven years before they flower and fruit.
  • That means for a breeder to improve a trait such as disease resistance, it is necessary to wait 3-7 years to see the results of each cross. Several to many generations are needed to produce an improved variety.
  • In practice it can take anywhere from 15 -20 years or longer to produce a new variety.
slide3

The Solution:

‘FASTRACK’

A breeding system that uses a genetically engineered (GE) tree flowering gene that produces generation cycles of one year or less.

How does it work?

The next few slides will illustrate

slide4

STEP 1:

The Early, Continual Flowering (ECF) Gene is inserted into a parent plum line through genetic engineering.

T

ECF plum

(the T indicates that

it carries the ECF gene)

GeneticTransformation

Transgenic tree regeneration

ECF inducing gene ready to

be inserted into the plum tree

ECF gene is inserted

into a plum plant

An early flowering plum parent tree is produced that can

flower and fruit within a year.

slide5

This early flowering parent is ready to enter into a breeding program to combine traits of interest.

      • Instead of waiting 3-7 years for each generation, a generation can be made every year.
      • Instead of waiting 20 years for each new variety, a new variety can be made in five years.
slide6

STEP 2:An example

Crossing the ECF line for several generations with high sugar but otherwise poor quality plums to develop sweeter plum varieties.

In each generation the highest quality ECF plums with the highest sugar content are selected and used as parents

T

T

T

T

SELECT

Higher sugar, high quality

ECF trees as parents for the next generation

X

EFC plum

ECF Plum

High sugar plum

SELECT

Higher sugar, high quality

ECF trees as parents for the next generation

back

cross

X

Higher sugar

high quality

ECF trees

High sugar or other high quality trait

This can be carried out until the breeder has trees with fruit

that have a good combination of sweetness, other flavors

good size, nice color, etc.

slide7

High sugar

high quality types

not GE

ECF + High sugar

types

Not desirable

sugar and/or fruit type

not GE

ECF not desirable

sugar and/or fruit type

Only the high sugar, high quality,

non-ECF (non-GE) types are selected.

STEP 3:

Select the best.

T

T

There are 4 types of trees to choose from in the last generation:

slide8

Outcome:

‘FasTrack’ Breeding as outlined in this presentation can, in a relatively short time, provide improved tree fruits (in this case high quality, high sugar plums). For example, considering a generation time of 4 years for plum, 3 generations would normally require 16 years. FasTrack breeding would accomplish 3 generations in 5 years! In the end the selected FasTrack bred trees are not genetically engineered. Each tree has the potential to be a new cultivar or an improved type that can be used for continued breeding through conventional means.

slide12

Early and continuous flowering and fruiting allows

‘FasTrack’ Breeding to be carried out in green- or screen-house

slide13

The FasTrack Team:

USDA-ARS, Kearneysville, West Virginia

Ralph Scorza Tree fruit breeding (classical and genetic engineering)

Chinnathambi

Srinivasan Genetic engineering of fruit trees

Ann Callahan Molecular biology of fruit quality of stone fruits

Chris Dardick Molecular biology of fruit quality of stone fruits

We are collaborating with colleagues at other institutions:

University of California, Davis Ted DeJong Plum breeding, variety development of

dried plums

Clemson UniversityAlbert Abbott Development and testing of molecular

markers for fruit trees

Pennsylvania State University Jayson Harper Agricultural economics