slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 73

Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

Developing Blended Learning: Challenges & Implications. Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University Chairman Emeritus, United States Distance Learning Association. Introduction.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Dr. Jolly Holden Associate Professor, School of Education American InterContinental University' - mariko-russell


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Developing Blended Learning: Challenges & Implications

Dr. Jolly Holden

Associate Professor, School of Education

American InterContinental University

Chairman Emeritus,

United States Distance Learning Association

slide2

Introduction

Blended learning is more than just combining an online component to the traditional classroom…it is a systematic process of selecting the most appropriate media for a specific learning intervention based upon the learning objectives.

With that said, given the plethora of instructional media available to the instructional designer today, combined with the emergence of web-based collaborative tools, there is a renewed focus on integrating web 2.0 tools and other instructional media in meeting today’s learning challenges.

“Blended learning represents a [fundamental] shift in instructional strategy”

North American Council for Online Learning, Blended Learning: The Convergence of Online and Face-to-Face Education, 2008

slide3

The Emergence of Blended Learning

As instructional media continues to evolve, propelled by advances in technology and fueled by the need to increase learning opportunities, the evolution and advancements of instructional media will continue to accelerate as well. As a result, blended learning will become an integral component in developing a comprehensive learning strategy.

“The term blended learning has been redefined, from a combination of instructor and Web-based training to a blend of many types of interactive content”

Josh Bersin, “Today’s High-Impact Learning Organization”, Chief Learning Officer Magazine, Aug, 2008

slide4

Why Blended Learning: The Challenge

Driven by the demand to increase learning opportunities and reduce costs without impacting instructional integrity, educators and trainers are continually challenged in searching for the for right mix of instructional media.

Taking into consideration all of the instructional technologies available today, selecting the right mix of live, virtual, and constructive courseware delivery methods in meeting the needs of our learners can be a challenging and daunting task. Consequently, this presentation address these two basic questions:

Q1: What is the most appropriate mix of instructional media, and…

Q2: What are the variables to consider when selecting the most appropriate media?

slide5

Web 3.0:

Virtual Learning Environments

Correspondence

(1883-present)

Technology-enabled

(circa 1950s-1990s

e-learning

(circa 1995-present)

E-learning 2.0:

Portability/Wireless

Learning Environments

Electronic-assisted

Learning

(circa 1990-present)

Smart-phones

Immersive Simulation

Virtual Worlds

PDAs

Computer-mediated

Learning

(circa 1970-present)

Video

Conferencing

Satellite

e-learning/ITV

Electronic

whiteboards

Computer-based

Training (CBT)

Video tape/DVD/

ipods

We-based Training

Online Learning

The Family Tree of Instructional Media:

From the Past to Tomorrow

“Distance learning will evolve from basic enrollment in computer and web-based courses to virtual learning environments that support online collaboration and classes taught by both live and virtual instructors.”

Air Force White Paper,. On Learning: The Future of Air Force Education and Training (2008)

Change is inevitable, and tomorrow will bring newer and better technologies, accompanied by a new set of challenges, but the goal is the same: Optimize the technology without sacrificing instructional quality. In the end, incorporating sound instructional design principles will provide for a solid foundation to ensure learning outcomes are attained.

“In this global, networked world, several technologies including search engines, blogs, podcasts, Web 2.0 applications and virtual worlds such as Second Life will be used for learning.”

Ed Hoff, CLO IBM, Learning in the 21st Century: A Brave New World, CLO Magazine, April, 2008

Social Media

slide6

Rules of Engagement for Blended Learning

Blended learning allows the instructional designer the opportunity to leverage the strengths of instructional media with the efficacy of the instructional components to ensure the instructional goal is attained.

For a blended learning solution to be successful, it is imperative a thorough media analysis and needs assessment is conducted while addressing the fundamental components of the instructional systems design process.

“Migrating to blended learning formats requires instructional design analysis that integrates with the technologies that will be utilized to deliver it.”

The e-Learning Developers Journal (2005)

slide7

Basic Blended Learning Concepts

  • Delivery media does not affect the content, but affects how you design the content
    • Asynchronous media is not adaptive to dynamic content
    • Synchronous media can accommodate dynamic content
  • Blended learning integrates multiple media with the appropriate instructional strategies, and can also include
    • Collaborative tools used to facilitate the transfer of learning (discussion boards)
    • Adaptive tools used for dynamic content/increased interaction (wikis & blogs)
      • Note: Web 2.0 tools and social media are more commonly used to support “informal learning”
  • Media attributes are important in that they may affect your choice of instructional strategies
slide8

Recent Blended Learning Research

“In experimental and quasi-experimental studies contrasting blends of online and face-to-face instruction with conventional face-to-face classes, blended instruction has been more effective, providing a rationale for the effort required to design and implement blended approaches.”

  • Conclusions
  • Blended and purely online learning conditions implemented within a single study generally result in similar student learning outcomes
  • Blended conditions often included additional learning time and instructional elements not received by students in control conditions
  • Positive effects associated with blended learning should not be attributed to the media, which is consistent with the position the medium is simply a carrier of content and unlikely to affect learning

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, Washington, D.C., 2009. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/tech/evidence-based-practices/finalreport.pdf

slide9

The Blended Learning Journey

This presentation will provide some background on blended learning and instructional media, as well as introducing variables to consider when developing a blended learning strategy.

Additionally, this presentation will introduce the concepts of synchronicity (integration of learning environments) and elasticity(integration of instructional media with instructional strategies) to ensure the right mix is attained.

  • Presentation objectives:
  • Define Blended Learning
  • Identify Instructional Media Selection Considerations
  • Discuss Instructional & Pedagogical Variables
  • Define Elasticity and Synchronicity
  • Market’s Acceptance of Blended Learning

Navigation Bar

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide10

Blended Learning Definitions

  • Although the application of blended learning has been around for decades, there is no universally accepted definition. While it appears the term first appeared in the literature circa 1999, the following pages articulate several definitions that represent different perspectives in an attempt to define the term, but they all have one essential component in common...an integration of instructional media. The definitions offered in this presentation reflect different perspectives concerning the definition of blended learning:
    • General Construct
    • Educational
    • Pragmatic
    • Training
    • Logical
    • Instructional Design

A rose by any other name is still a rose

More definitions of blended learning available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/elearning/blended.html

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide11

Blended Learning Definitions

  • A General Construct
  • The delivery of instruction using multiple media*
  • Includes the integration of instructional media into a traditional classroom or into a distance learning environment.
  • Includes any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media.
    • * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach

Note: This is applicable to any learning environment that combines multiple media to deliver content.

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide12

Traditional Classroom

Online

Blended Learning Definitions

An Educational Perspective*

Courses that integrate online with traditional face-to- face class activities in a planned pedagogically valuable manner; and…where a portion (institutionally defined) of face-to-face time is replaced by online activity.

Blended Learning

Consequently, from an educational perspective, blended learning is primarily focused on integrating two separate paradigms…the traditional classroom [synchronous] environment and the asynchronous online environment.

Note: Hybrid learning, vis-à-vis blended learning, is often used in higher education when the student has a choice between an online class and the traditional class…not necessarily the integration of the two.

  • Source: Laster, S., G. Otte, A. G. Picciano and S. Sorg. Redefining blended learning. Presented at the 2005 Sloan-C Workshop on Blended Learning, Chicago, IL, April 18, 2005.

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide13

Blended Learning Definitions

A Pragmatic Perspective

Courses that are taught both in the classroom (face-to-face) and at a distance and that use a mix of different pedagogic strategies

(Source: edutechwiki, 2006, Available at http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning)

  • More specifically…
  • To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal.
  • To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce optimal learning outcomes with or with out instructional technology.
  • To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training.
  • Source: Margaret Driscoll, n.d, retrieved Jan 5, 2007 from: http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Blended_learning

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide14

Blended Learning Definitions

A Training Perspective

The use of multiple instructional delivery media to deliver one course or curriculum, such as a technical training course with pre-reading, asynchronous online knowledge acquisition, and/or synchronous lectures.

Source: e-Learning Guild’s Research Report ,Synchronous Learning Systems, June 2008

Synchronous and asynchronous media. For clarification, blended learning is also applied to a mix of online and face-to-face training, and more generally to approaches to course design and delivery that combine different modalities (e.g., self-paced Web-based training, followed by classroom instruction, accompanied by printed job aids, and supplemented by virtual classroom follow-up sessions).

Source: e-Learning Guild Handbook on Synchronous e-Learning (2007)

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide15

Blended Learning Definitions

A Logical Perspective

“A learning program where more than one delivery mode is being used with the objective of optimizing the learning outcome and cost of program delivery.”

Achieving Success with Blended Learning , Harvi Singh and Chris Reed (2001). Available at: http://www.chriscollieassociates.com/BlendedLearning.pdf

“Collaborative online learning is now recognized as a component of a mature blended-learning strategy.” Bersin & Associates, Technology Update: Open Source e-Learning Systems, June 2007

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide16

Blended Learning Definitions

An Instructional Design Perspective

“Blended learning is nothing more [or less] than good instructional design.”

The difference between blended learning 60 years ago and today is the instructional designer has more of a selection of instructional media. However, the concept and application of instructional media into a blended learning solution is the same as it was 60 years ago…

Attainment of the learning outcomes to improve human performance

“The Internet-is-going-to-eliminate-face-to-face-training paradigm has exploded and the term blended learning was coined by the e-learning protagonists as a way of admitting that classroom instruction is not going away. Jack Gordon, Editor-at-Large , Training magazine, July 2005

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide17

The Concept of Synchronicity

Although synchronicity is dichotomous, per se, either synchronous or asynchronous, it does not mean they are mutually exclusive when considering a blended learning solution. If viewed as being on opposite ends of a continuum, the degree to which these two dichotomous environments can be integrated would result in a blending of synchronicity.

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Blended Learning

Therefore, to attain the most optimum blend, one must consider the vehicle(s) that deliver the content, the [learning environment] in which the learning occurs, and the instructional objective(s) [which drive the development of the content and instructional strategies]. Consequently, blended learning can include any combination of media that supports instruction, regardless of the mix of synchronous or asynchronous media.

Click here for note on Web 3.0 & Virtual Worlds

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide18

Blended Learning Model Concept Map

Distance Learning

Traditional Classroom

Learning Environment Component

Depicted in this concept map is the blended learning model three main components and subcomponents. The degree of integration of each of the subcomponents is based upon evaluating specific attributes of each component, resulting in the most appropriate blend to ensure attainment of the instructional goal.

Note: This model is based upon a set of related components, although evaluated separately, are viewed holistically, per se, each component’s specific contribution must be viewed as it relates to the sum total of all the parts… which results in a comprehensive blended learning solution.

Instructional Objectives

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Blended Learning Model

Instructional Component

Collaborative Tools

Content

InstructionalStrategies

Media Component

Rapidity of Change

Complexity

Multimedia (aural/visual)

Synchronicity

Interactivity

Symmetry

Synchronous Instructional Media

Asynchronous Instructional Media

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Asymmetrical Media

Symmetrical Media

Collaboration (P2P)

Collaboration (P2P)

Dialectic

Didactic

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide19

Blended Learning Model Components

Derived from the blended learning concept map is the tri-dimensional blended learning module. A model can be a description of a system or phenomenon that accounts for its known or inferred properties and used for further study of its characteristics. Therefore, a blended learning model can be used as a guide in evaluating and integrating separate components that would result in an instructionally sound learning situation.

Instructional component: Used to select the most appropriate instructional strategies that support the learning objectives

Learning environment component: Evaluates the learning environment (synchronous/asynchronous) that supports the instructional objectives

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media component: Used to evaluate the most appropriate media to delivery the content

Media Component

Click on any of the model component links for detailed information for that specific component. Click here for a summary of each component.

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide20

Concept of Elasticity in Blended Learning

elasticity

The power of blended learning is in its

Depending upon the [cognitive] level of the learning objectives and the learning environment (synchronous vis-a-vis asynchronous), different combinations of instructional media and instructional strategies can support various levels of interactivity to attain the most appropriate "blend".

Learning

Environment

Instructional

As the blend changes, the model becomes "elastic", allowing the instructional designer to modify the blend to meet specific learning outcomes.

Media

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide21

Learning

Environment

Instructional

Media

Elasticity in Blended Learning

What is the right mix? There may be several “blended” solutions that can meet the instructional objectives, so consider the qualitative merits of all instructional media. The ultimate goal is to increase performance through the systematic evaluation of intra-dependent variables that would result in the most appropriate integration of media.

With that said, any combination of instructional

delivery medium, including the traditional classroom,

can result in a blended learning solution, but the instructional

efficacy of the solution is most dependent upon the instructional

and learning environment components.

Click here for another view of the blend

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide22
Survey from the Chief Learning Officer magazine Business Intelligence Board*

Survey of Chief Learning Officers (CLOs) Use of Blended Learning

The traditional classroom is still the primary delivery media (56%) but synchronous & asynchronous e-learning is increasing (24%), along with the use of m-learning (6%)

* Source: Chief Learning Officer Magazine. (July, 2007). Blended Learning: Mixing Modalities. Available at: http://www.clomedia.com

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide23

Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t)

The greatest change in the delivery mix will continue to come via the increased adoption of e-learning and the increased use of portable technologies.

IBM’s perspective on blended learning and workforce mobility

Did you know that…click here

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide24

Survey of CLOs Use of Blended Learning (con’t)

“[There is] an important link between content type and delivery method and that student-instructor interaction receives strong consideration in determining which delivery methods get employed within an organization...” and “The value of student-to-instructor interaction remains a primary driver for both classroom-based ILT and synchronous e-learning….as well as student-to-student interaction.” CLO Magazine., July, 2007, pg. 48-49

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide25

So…What Does it Mean?

  • “The best current evidence is that media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition… only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement.”
  • Richard.Clark, “Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media”. Review of Educational Research, Winter, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1983, pp. 445-459. (Full text available from http://www.springerlink.com/content/681t5680047393j5/fulltext.pdf )

"It is likely not the ‘blendedness’ that makes the difference, but rather the fundamental re-consideration of the content in light of new instructional and media choices.”

Richard Voos, Blended Learning-What is it and where might it take us? Sloan-C View, Volume 2, Issue 1 – Feb, 2003. Available at: http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/view/v2n1/coverv2n1.htm

“There’s an important point that is easy to miss in the frenzy of change. Web 2.0 is not about technology, and neither is e-Learning 2.0. The human element is what makes the new Web work. Without user-generated content, the new Web would be an empty shell of fancy technologies.” e-Learning Guild, What is e-Learning 2.0? , Aug, 2008

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

it s not just about technology it s about people

Sender

(Instructor)

Receiver

(Learner)

Collaboration +

Teamwork = Success

Delivery System

It’s not just about technology…it’s about people

Final Note: The Learning Mantra

  • Training/education is the process
  • Learning is the outcome
  • The technology is the means
  • Focus on learning outcomes…the end result:
  • Improving human performance

DefinitionsSynchronicity Blended Learning Model ElasticityMarket Analysis

slide27

End of Presentation

“One only needs two tools in life: WD-40 tomake things go, and duct tape to make themstop.”

G. M. Weilacher, American humorist

“and a hammer to pound things in and a screw driver to pry them out.”

my wife

Click to go back to prior slide

Click to go back to Presentation Map

learning environment component
Learning Environment Component

A learning environment can either be synchronous or asynchronous, per se, the learning is either occurring real-time with an instructor (synchronous), or it is occurring without the presence of an instructor (asynchronous). Regardless, each learning environment has their distinct advantages and disadvantages, and the goal of developing a blended learning strategy is to leverage those specific attributes of each environment to ensure the most optimum use of resources to attain the instructional goal.

Asynchronous

Distance Learning

Synchronous

Traditional Classroom

Back to Main Page Learning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

the synchronous learning environment
The Synchronous Learning Environment

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Advantages

  • Provides for a dialectic learning environment with a high level of interactivity
    • Encourages spontaneity of oral responses
    • Immediate reinforcement of ideas
  • Supports activation learning strategies

such as idea generation (brainstorming)

  • Provides for peer support (social

learning theory)

    • Allows for peer-to-peer interaction
  • Structured learning environment
  • Disadvantages
  • Limited to same time
    • Required dedicated instructor
    • Does not provide for self-pacing
  • May be limited to same place

(albeit at a distance)

  • High cognitive load

Back to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

the asynchronous learning environment
The Asynchronous Learning Environment

Different/Same

Place

Different Time

Advantages

  • Provides for more opportunity of reflective thought
    • Not constrained by time
  • Delayed reinforcement of ideas
  • Provides for flexibility in delivery of content
  • Less structured learning environment
  • Provides for flexibility in location (home, office, etc.)

Disadvantages

  • No live interaction
    • Longer completion times
    • “Just-in-time” = “do-it-on-your
    • own-time”
    • Higher non-completion rates—
    • pacing not optimized

Back to Main PageLearning Environment PageSynchronousAsynchronous

media component
Media Component

Some instructional media may be more appropriate than others in supporting either a synchronous or asynchronous learning environment, but no single medium is inherently better or worse than another. Although the delivery medium does not affect the content, the selection of certain media may affect how you design the content based on the attributes of that specific medium. Regardless, when the “most appropriate” media are selected based on the ISD process, then learning outcomes will not be affected.

Media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents. When developing a blended learning solution, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solelyon the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment.

Click here for more on media mapped to the distance learning environment.

Synchronicity

Asynchronous Instructional Media

Synchronous

Instructional

Media

Wikis, blogs, discussion boards

Portability

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

taxonomy of media for blended learning
Taxonomy of Media for Blended Learning

The taxonomy is focused primarily on a dichotomous learning environment *

Click here for note on use of Wikis & Blogs as collaborative tools

  • * Source: Distance Learning Magazine, Vol 3, Number 2, 2006, Instructional Media Selection for Distance Learning: A Learning Environment Approach

Back to Main Page Media ComponentTaxonomyPortability

slide33

Synchronous Media

Asynchronous Media

  • Satellite e-learning
  • Video Conferencing
  • Audio Conferencing
  • Audio Graphics
  • Web Conferencing/SLS
  • Webinars
  • Online (Web-Based Training)
  • Computer-based Training
  • Video Tape/DVD
  • Audio Tape
  • Podcast/vodcast

Integrating Media:

A Blended Learning Approach

Integrating any combination of synchronous/ asynchronous media with the traditional classroom results in a blended learning solution.

Blended

Solution

Traditional Classroom

Back to Main Page Media ComponentTaxonomyPortability

slide34

Synchronous Instructional Media

Technology

Delivery

Description

Audio

Conferencing

An audio-only environment in which students in different locations use telephones or audio conferencing equipment to communicate with each other in real time. Supports a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor, remote students, and multiple sites but does not support visual images and graphics, and often supplemented by electronic or printed handouts. Can be integrated with other delivery systems to provide synchronous audio.

Audiographics combines audio conferencing with personal computer text and graphics, allowing both voice and data to be transmitted to remote sites. Typically, a site consists of audio conference equipment, plus a large screen that serves as an electronic whiteboard. This system allows for two-way data exchange (limited to high-resolution still images only) and a synchronous interactive environment between the instructor and students at multiple sites.

Audiographics

Synchronous Web-Based

Instruction (WBI)/Web Conferencing (Synchronous Learning Systems)

Internet-based and delivered over the Web that enable synchronous audio and/or text chat, video, document and application sharing, whiteboards, presentations, etc. Can support synchronous oral interaction between the instructor and remote students at multiple locations as well as supporting Multi-User Virtual Environment (MUVE) or webinars. Due to bandwidth limitations (basically, low-bandwidth applications), high-resolution images and video may be limited. Note: The application of web conferencing in a learning environment is also known as synchronous learning systems (SLS).

Instructional Television (ITV)

ITV is defined as a one-way, full motion video and audio transmission of classroom instruction through a telecommunications channel such as satellite, cable TV, or Instructional TV Fixed Service (ITFS), a dedicated 2.5GHz spectrum managed by the FCC and limited to educational programming only, usually transmitted via microwave

slide35

Technology

Delivery

Description

Instructional Television (ITV)- con’t

towers. This specific application would not be available to instructional programming

programming received via commercial cable TV). Due to the bandwidth available via satellite or ITFS, this delivery medium can emulate the live, traditional classroom environment but at a distance. ITV is sometimes referred to as Business Television (BTV), Interactive Video Teletraining, or Interactive TV, and can be transmitted via analog or digital systems.

Satellite

e-learning

Satellite e-learning represents the next generation of distributed media. Utilizing IP (Internet Protocol) as the network layer and distribution technology, it also incorporates the latest MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) video standard or latest version of Widows Media. Similar in application to ITV, it allows for the live traditional classroom to be transmitted to a remote site while synchronous oral interactivity is supported by audio teleconferencing or student response systems integrating audio and keypad technology (data interaction). Additionally, since satellite e-learning uses IP, video streaming can be utilized at extremely high bandwidths (~3.0Mbps). The IP-based video can be distributed directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed via the LAN to either a classroom or desktop computer, or both. Also, satellite e-learning can easily transmit large multimedia/web-based training modules (known as data casting) without being constrained by bandwidth, as is common with a terrestrial network. This capability allows the data to bypass the WAN by transmitting directly to the user’s end-point and then distributed locally via the LAN, thereby effectively bypassing the terrestrial infrastructure and the Internet. Satellite e-learning is also referred to as BTV/IP (Business Television/Internet Protocol).

Synchronous Instructional Media

slide37

When evaluating media components, wikis, blogs, and discussion boards are primarily collaborative tools and not considered stand-alone instructional media delivery options. However, they can be integrated into a course/learning module in developing a social learning structure that supports active learning and knowledge construction through peer-to-peer interaction.

In a research study investigating the interplay of synchronous and asynchronous communication used in online courses, students seemed more satisfied with face-to-face courses that used asynchronous discussion boards as alternative communication media than courses that were entirely asynchronous based. Significant data were found to indicate the effect of synchronous media in a mostly asynchronous discussion forum. The ability of synchronous media to foster social presence is not shown or disproved by the research

Source: A Field Study of Use of Synchronous Chat in Online Courses (2002), Retrieved from: http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/HICSS36/HICSSpapers/CLTSL03.pdf

Back to Taxonomy

portability
Portability
  • Refers to how portable (mobile) a specific media may be, e.g., cell phones, ipods/Blackberry’s, personal DVD players, other similar wireless devices.
  • When evaluating portability, consider symmetry, per se, the amount of information [digital bits] that flows to/from the sender and receiver in either direction. For example:
    • Asymmetrical interaction is when the flow of information is predominantly in a single direction such as in a didactic lecture or asynchronous learning module with no interaction between the student and instructor.
    • Conversely, in a conferencing or collaborative learning environment, the information flow is symmetrical, per se, the information flow is evenly distributed between learners and instructors and equal amounts of digital information is flowing both directions.
  • A close relationship exists between symmetry and interactivity. The more the student-instructor interaction, the greater the need for a symmetrical delivery system.

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

slide40

Symmetrical vs. Asymmetrical Learning Environments

When articulating a blended learning strategy, considering symmetry of the learning environment is almost as important as considering its synchronicity. If not taken into account, it may lead the course designer to make less than optimal choices in instructional media selection.

High

Symmetry

Click on the icon of how Merrill Lynch use of mobile learning

High

Low

Interactivity

Back to Main PageMedia ComponentTaxonomyPortability

instructional component variables to consider
Instructional Component: Variables to Consider

Learning Styles

Multimedia

(aural/visual)

Rapidity of Change

Instructional Objectives

Content

Complexity

Instructional Strategies

When developing a blended learning solution, maintaining instructional quality is paramount. Consequently, learning objectives are never compromised when developing a blended learning solution.

Instructional strategies are the products of learning objectives and serve to ensure the learning objectives and facilitate the transfer of learning.

Click for information on learning styles

Interactivity (strategies supporting specific media)

Asynchronous

Synchronous

Collaboration

(P2P)

Collaboration

(P2P)

Didactic#

Dialectic*

# Instructor-student

* Instructor-student-instructor

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

note on learning objectives
Note on Learning Objectives

The most significant factors in student learning are quality and effectiveness of instruction, and the most important single factor in developing a blended learning solution is the instructional objective. The level of cognitive objectives is a critical variable to consider when selecting the most appropriate media for blended learning, and generally speaking:

  • Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels where knowledge and comprehension and repetition/drill & practice are the primary focus, and
  • Synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels (synthesis/analysis/evaluation) where a synchronous learning environment is required to support a high level of interaction (dialog).

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide43

What is a Learning Objective?

  • A learning objective (aka behavioral objective, instructional objective, enabling objective, or performance objective) is a succinct statement that describes a specific learning activity
    • Includes a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit in order to evaluate competency
    • Expressed in terms of the student and formulated in terms of observable behavior and the special conditions in which the behavior is manifested.

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide44

Why Developing Learning Objectives?

  • The purpose of creating learning objectives is to provide a means of clarifying the instructional goal and ensure the training/education is successful.
  • Establishes the criteria for student performance used to assess learning
  • Used to develop instructional strategies
  • Basis for media selection

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide45

Types of Objectives

  • Instructional objectives are developed from a taxonomy known as the domain of learning objectives and includes three overlapping domains:
    • Psychomotor
    • Affective
    • Cognitive
      • Demonstrated by knowledge recall and the intellectual skills: comprehending information, organizing ideas, analyzing and synthesizing data, applying knowledge, choosing among alternatives in problem solving, and evaluating ideas or actions

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide46

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives

A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation).

Doing

Higher

Lower

Knowing

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide47

Instructional Strategies

The dissemination of content through the use of instructional media is only as effective as the design of the instruction

  • Instruction is designed to transfer knowledge from the instructor to the learner to the real-world environment.
  • The transfer of learning is facilitated by the development of instructional strategies
    • Certain synchronous instructional technologies may be best suited for instructional strategies that require a live and dialectic learning environment.
    • Conversely, there are asynchronous instructional technologies that are best integrated with strategies that require asynchronous learning environment.

Click here for an explanation of the difference between instructional strategies and cognitive learning strategies.

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide48

Table of Instructional Strategies

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide49

Table of Instructional Strategies

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide50

Instructional Strategies Supporting Asynchronous Media

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

slide51

Instructional Strategies Supporting Synchronous Media

Back to Main PageInstructional ComponentInstructional ObjectivesInstructional Strategies

summarizing the media component

Symmetry

Synchronicity

Asymmetrical

Media

Synchronous

Instructional

Media

Asynchronous Instructional Media

Symmetrical

Media

Portability

Summarizing:The Media Component
  • While media does not affect the content, it can affect how you design the content for a specific medium
  • Variables to consider:
    • Media richness (motion handling, visual clarity/pixel resolution)
    • Dispersion of workforce/distribution of content
    • Ability to update content quickly
    • Technological infrastructure
    • Capital & recurring costs
      • Bandwidth
      • Hardware end points
    • Portability
    • Simplex (one-way) data vis-a-vis
    • duplex (2-way data)

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media

Component

  • Click here for more on distance learning environments
  • Click here for e-learning 2.0 technologies & definitions
  • Click herefor an introduction to Media Synchronicity Theory
summarizing the learning environment component

Asynchronous

Distance Learning

Traditional Classroom

Synchronous

Summarizing: The Learning Environment Component
  • Synchronicity: Is the learning environment primarily synchronous or asynchronous or a combination of both?
  • Variables to consider:
    • Time & space
      • Live interaction
      • Collaboration
      • Pacing
      • Flexibility in content delivery
      • Timeliness of completion
      • Reinforcement of ideas (immediate vs. delayed)
      • Reflection of ideas

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media

Component

summarizing the instructional component

Instructional

Strategies

Instructional Objectives

Content

Rapidity of Change

Complexity

Multimedia

(aural/visual)

Interactivity

Asynchronous

Synchronous

Collaboration

(P2P)

Collaboration

(P2P)

Didactic

Dialectic

Summarizing: The Instructional Component
  • Asynchronous media may be more appropriate for the lower cognitive levels whereas synchronous media may be more appropriate for the higher cognitive levels.
  • Variables to consider:
    • Level of interactivity
      • Spontaneity
      • Collaboration
      • Peer-to-peer
      • Instructor-student (didactic)
      • Instructor-student-instructor (dialectic)
    • Cognitive load
    • Reinforcement of ideas/thoughts (immediate/delayed)
    • Rapidity of content change
    • Complexity of content
    • Level of cognitive objectives (click here for a brief over of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives)
    • What about learning styles (click here)?

Learning Environment Component

Instructional Component

Media

Component

slide55

Synchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies

Instructional TV/Satellite e-Learning

Video Teleconferencing

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion/ Group Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Role Playing
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations

Web Conferencing

Audio Conferencing

Audio Graphics

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/Panel Discussion
  • Idea Generation (Brainstorming)
slide56

Asynchronous Instructional Media Mapped to Instructional Strategies

Pre-recorded video

(CD/DVD, vodcast, tape)

Webinars

Computer-based Instruction

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Guided Discussion/ Panel Discussion
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Simulations
  • Role Playing
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Role Playing
  • Drill & Practice
  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Illustrations/Imagery/Modeling
  • Demonstration
  • Case Studies
  • Simulations
  • Drill & Practice

Pre-recorded audio

(podcast, cassette, CD)

Correspondence

  • Narration (Lecture)
  • Case Studies
  • Drill & Practice
  • Narration (Lecture)
portability an ibm workforce mobility perspective
Portability: An IBM Workforce Mobility Perspective*

Blended learning allows companies to mix scheduled and unscheduled training modules and structured and unstructured learning experiences, as well as provide self-paced material to keep today’s learners engaged.

Return to previous page

* Source: On demand learning: blended learning for today’s evolving workforce, IBM Learning Solutions, September 2005, Available at: http://www-935.ibm.com/services/us/imc/pdf/gw510-6396-on-demand-learning.pdf

mobile learning merrill lynch compliance training delivered via blackberry s
Mobile Learning: Merrill Lynch Compliance Training Delivered via BlackBerry’s*
  • Background. With a population of 60,000 employees, Merrill Lynch has more than 21,000 BlackBerry devices in use globally, with 500 new devices being added monthly. One of the primary advantages of using BlackBerries to delivery m-learning is that the devices are integrated within the corporate network.
  • Goals. Enable learning outside the office during naturally occurring downtime; leverage existing BlackBerry usage habits; allow employees to complete learning in small bursts, regardless of time and place with no need for network coverage.
  • Results. Offered 3 compliance training courses via BlackBerry for a 2 month period and achieved:
    • Increase of 1.21% in average competency score to the control groups
    • Attained a 12% higher completion rate at the 45-day milestone
    • Attained an average of 45% less time in training, with some completing the training in <80% with no loss of comprehension

* Source: Chief Learning Officer magazine, Merrill Lynch: Bullish on Mobile Learning, April, 2008.

Return to previous page

slide59

What Might Go in the Blend*

Return to previous page

* Source: Allison Rossett and Rebecca Vaughan Frazee, Blended Learning Opportunities, American Management Association Special Report, 2006

slide60

Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment

  • Distance Learning Classroom
  • group centric (classroom environment)
  • primarily synchronous
  • dialectic & collaborative
  • constrained by time & place
  • Supporting Media
  • Satellite e-learning
  • Video Conferencing
  • Audio Conferencing
  • Audio Graphics

Since media are vehicles that simply deliver their contents, the selection of the most appropriate media is not based solelyon the attributes of the media, but the potential impact it may have on the design of the instructional components and corresponding physical learning environment.

For example, the group centric distance learning classroom is best supported by media that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment, but is limited by time and place, whereas portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction.

  • Virtual Classroom
  • individual centric (office environment)
  • synchronous & asynchronous capability
  • mostly didactic but can support interaction
  • constrained by time not place
  • Supporting Media
  • Web conferencing tools
  • Virtual Learner
  • Individual centric (portable to any location)
  • primarily asynchronous
  • primarily didactic with little/no interaction
  • not constrained by time & place
  • Supporting Media
  • Mobile devices

Return to previous page

slide61

Delivery Media Mapped to the Distance Learning Environment

  • Distance Learning Classroom
  • group centric (classroom environment)
  • primarily synchronous
  • dialectic & collaborative
  • constrained by time & place
  • Supporting Media
  • Satellite e-learning
  • Video Conferencing
  • Audio Conferencing
  • Audio Graphics

In a group centric distance learning classroom, the most appropriate media are those that can provide for a dialectic and collaborative environment but maybe constrained by time and place. However, portable media best supports the individual learner anytime/anyplace but with limited peer support and interaction.

  • Virtual Classroom
  • individual centric (office environment)
  • synchronous & asynchronous capability
  • mostly didactic but can support interaction
  • constrained by time not place
  • Supporting Media
  • Web conferencing tools
  • Virtual Learner
  • Individual centric (portable to any location)
  • primarily asynchronous
  • primarily didactic with little/no interaction
  • not constrained by time & place
  • Supporting Media
  • Mobile devices

Return to previous page

slide62

Teaching with Instructional Television (ITV)--Did you Know…

There is a tendency to regard the future of distance learning as belonging solely to online or web classes. However, some researchers have found that courses offered in ITV were sometimes preferred by students even when the same course was offered online. Also, the visual and interactive nature of instructional television benefited students and that student satisfaction with ITV has been generally confirmed.

Teaching with ITV (Jan, 2008). International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning: http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_08/index.htm

Return to previous page

slide63

Media Synchronicity Theory*

Media synchronicity theory is primarily focused on groups and proposes that a set of media capabilities are important to group work, and that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as proposed by media richness theory. The theory postulates it is possible for one medium to possess different levels of a communication capability depending upon how it is configured and used. Media possess many capabilities, each of which may be more or less important in a given situation. The "richest" medium is that which best provides the set of capabilities needed by the situation: the individuals, task, and social context within which they interact (Note: richness applies to the message/content, not the richness of the visual media). Thus, concluding that face-to-face communication is the "richest" media is inappropriate.

“Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.”

* Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity, Retrieved from: http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/01/00011017.PDF

Return to Summarizing the Media Component

slide64

Media Synchronicity Theory:Dimensions of Task Functions, Communication Processes, and Media Characteristics

“Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes as tested in examinations of media richness theory.” *

Source: Alan R. Dennis, Alan R., Valacich, Joseph S., (1999), Rethinking Media Richness: Towards a Theory of Media Synchronicity,

Return to Summarizing the Media Component

slide65

e-Learning 2.0 Technologies

  • Wikis
  • Blogs
  • Podcasts
  • Vodcasts
  • Immersive learning environments, e.g., multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs)
  • Note: Wikis & blogs are primarily collaborative tools and not instructional media used to deliver content
  • Definitions*
  • Web 2.0: Technologies that foster user-generated content, user interactivity,
  • collaboration, and information sharing such as wikis, blogs, forums, podcasting, and social networking.
  • e-Learning 2.0: “The idea of learning through digital connections and peer collaboration enhanced by technologies driving Web 2.0. Users/learners are empowered to search, create, and collaborate in order to fulfill intrinsic needs to learn new information.”
  • *Source: e-Learning Guild Research Report on e-Learning 2.0—Learning in a Web 2.0 World, Sep 2008

Return to previous page

slide66

Virtual worlds are online, computer-generated simulations of simulated environments where users guide their "avatar," or digital representation of their physical selves, to accomplish various goals. Typical virtual world activities include meeting and socializing with other avatars, buying and selling virtual items, playing games, etc. Virtual worlds combine both synchronous capabilities (audio, text chat, whiteboards), as well as asynchronous capabilities (static text, embedded learning modules, learning objects, etc.). Within the context of the evolution of the Internet from Web 1.0 to Web 3.0, Virtual worlds--especially the 3D kinds--are classified under the Web 3.0 category because of their profound ability to integrate multiple types of content, information sources, and feeds into one highly engaging and interactive format.

Return to previous page

For information on virtual worlds used in the Federal Government: Federal Consortium on Virtual Worlds. Hosted by National Defense University (NDU), Information Resources Management College (IRMC): http://www.ndu.edu/iCollege/fcvw/fcvw10/index.html

slide67

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives

Doing

A metaphor depicting the taxonomy of learning objectives can be thought as assembling blocks in building a pyramid. The knowledge and comprehension levels create the foundation from which one develops higher order thinking skills commensurate with the higher cognitive levels (analysis, synthesis,& evaluation).

Knowing

Continuum of Cognitive Domain Objectives

LowerHigher

Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation

Return to prior page

slide68

Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives Mapped to Instructional Media*

* Adapted from John Lasseter’s media selection table

Return to prior page

slide69

What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles?

      • Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research.
    • Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic).
    • What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality.
    • Learning styles vis-à-vis learning modalities: Learning/cognitive styles are habitual ways of processing information to memory, per se, they are ways one senses, thinks, solves problems, and remembers information. On the other hand, learning, or perceptual modalities, are sensory based and refer to the primary way our bodies take in information though our senses: visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving), and tactile (touching). Note: Since neuroscience has revealed 90% of what the brain processes is visual information, one’s primary learning modality is visual.
  • Sharp, J. G., Byrne, J., & Bowker, R. (2008). The trouble with VAK. Educational Futures Vol.1(1) August 2008. Retrieved from http://www.educationstudies.org.uk/materials/sharp_et_al_2.pdf

Return to Prior Page

slide70

Different Learning/Cognitive Styles & Impact

    • Research has identified over 71 different types of learning stylescategorized into 13 major learning styles models .
    • The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning).
    • Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer 2005. Available at: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm
    • Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties.
  • Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf;
  • Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html

Return to Prior Page

slide71

What are Learning Styles/Cognitive Styles?

      • Cognitive style is viewed as a bipolar dimension representing a person's typical or habitual mode of problem solving, thinking, perceiving and remembering; considered stable over time, and related to theoretical or academic research.
    • Learning style entails many elements, are related to practical applications, and usually not “either-or” extremes. Learning styles are characterized by how information is preferentially perceived (sensory or intuitive), organized (inductive or deductive), and processed (active or reflective), and modality is preference (visual, aural, or kinesthetic).
    • What cognitive science has revealed is learners differ in their abilities with different modalities, but teaching to a learner’s best modality doesn't affect his/her educational achievement. What does matter is whether the learner is taught in the content's best modality. All students learn more when content drives the choice of modality.
    • Learning styles vis-à-vis learning modalities: Learning/cognitive styles are habitual ways of processing information to memory, per se, they are ways one senses, thinks, solves problems, and remembers information. On the other hand, learning, or perceptual modalities, are sensory based and refer to the primary way our bodies take in information though our senses: visual (seeing), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving), and tactile (touching). Note: Since neuroscience has revealed 90% of what the brain processes is visual information, one’s primary learning modality is visual.
  • Sharp, J. G., Byrne, J., & Bowker, R. (2008). The trouble with VAK. Educational Futures Vol.1(1) August 2008. Retrieved from http://www.educationstudies.org.uk/materials/sharp_et_al_2.pdf

Return to Prior Page

slide72

Different Learning/Cognitive Styles & Impact

    • Research has identified over 71 different types of learning stylescategorized into 13 major learning styles models .
    • The majority of research does not support a significant statistical relationship between learning/cognitive styles and learning outcomes, and postulates learning/cognitive styles have <5% affect on the variability in learning (Note: Prior knowledge and motivation account for ~70% of the variability in learning).
    • Source: Willingham, Daniel. Do Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learners Need Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Instruction? American Educator, Summer 2005. Available at: http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/issues/summer2005/cogsci.htm
    • Low validity and reliability scores of the instruments used to identify specific learning styles raise serious doubts about their psychometric properties.
  • Sources: Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. The Learning and Skills Research Centre, Learning and Skills Council, Department for Education and Skills, UK (2004). Available at http://www.lsda.org.uk/files/PDF/1543.pdf;
  • Cognitive Styles and Distance Education, Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume II, Number III, Fall1999. Available at: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/liu23.html

Return to Prior Page

slide73

Difference Between Instructional Strategies and Cognitive Learning Strategies

  • Instructional strategies
  • focus on the delivery of knowledge, while cognitive strategies focus on how the learner processes the knowledge;
  • are developed in support of the instructional goal and specific learning (instructional) objectives;
  • is a product that can be used to develop instructional materials, student/group exercises/activities, and media selection.
  • Cognitive learning strategies
  • are methods used to help learners link new information to prior knowledge in facilitating the transfer of learning and focuses on how the learner processes the knowledge;
  • are mental strategies which occur in the minds of people and employed by the instructional designer to facilitate the activation and retention of prior knowledge;
  • can be represented based on the information presented, and are used as tools to construct knowledge in new concepts.

Return to Prior Page