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PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPE Chapter 10. Donna J. Hill, Ph.D. Service Marketing Spring 2000. Servicescape. Physical facility ---(interior & exterior) Ambient conditions ---(temp. colors, noises, smells) Other tangibles. Table 10-1 Elements of Physical Evidence.

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Physical evidence and the servicescape chapter 10 l.jpg

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPEChapter 10

Donna J. Hill, Ph.D.

Service Marketing

Spring 2000


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Servicescape

  • Physical facility ---(interior & exterior)

  • Ambient conditions ---(temp. colors, noises, smells)

  • Other tangibles


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Table 10-1Elements of Physical Evidence


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Impact of Service Environment

  • Purchase decision

  • Expectations

  • Service quality evaluations

  • Satisfaction


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Table 10-2 Examples of Physical Evidence from the Customer’s Point of View


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Table 10-3 Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape


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Roles of the Servicescape

  • Package

  • Facilitator

  • Socialize

  • Differentiator


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Figure 10-3A Framework for UnderstandingEnvironment-user Relationships in Service Organizations

HOLISTIC

ENVIRONMENT

INTERNAL

RESPONSES

BEHAVIOR

PHYSICAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

DIMENSIONS

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Individual Behaviors

Employee Responses

Ambient Conditions

Space/Function

Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts

Perceived

Servicescape

Social Interactions between and among customer and employees

Customer Responses

Individual Behaviors

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner, “Servicescapes.”


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Framework for Understanding Servicescape Effects on Behavior

  • Internal Responses

    • Cognitive --- knowledge structure

    • Affective ---feelings & emotions

    • Physiological--- changes in


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Knowledge Structures

  • Beliefs

  • Categorization

  • Symbolic Meaning


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Emotional

  • Mood

  • Attitude


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Affective Responses

Arousing

Distressing

Exciting

Unpleasant

Pleasant

Gloomy

Relaxing

Sleeping


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Physiological Responses

  • Heart beat rate

  • Pupil dilation

  • Tears

  • Perspiration

  • Pain


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Physiological Responses

Cognitive

Physiological

Behavioral

Affective


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Individual Behaviors Created by Servicescape

  • Approach behaviors

  • Avoidance behaviors

  • Arousal seekers

  • Arousal avoiders

  • Environmental stimuli screeners

  • Environmental stimuli nonscreeners


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Social Interactions

  • Between and among customers and employees


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Environmental Dimensions

  • Ambient Conditions

  • Spatial Layout and Functionality

  • Signs, Symbols and Artifacts


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Perceptions of Crowding

  • Environmental cues

  • Shopping motives

  • Constraints

  • Expectations of crowding


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Affective reactions

Reduce browsing

Adjust purchases

Reduce interaction with employees

Less confidence in purchase decision

Dissatisfied with experience

Reduce image of firm

Modify future purchase intentions

Impact of Crowding

Short-term

Long-term


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Maximizing the Service Environment

1. Recognize strategic impact.

2. Blueprint

3. Clarify roles of the Servicescape

4. Assess and identify physical evidence

opportunities.

5. Update and modernize

.


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Servicescape Positioning

Cost Efficiency

Firm

(Technical)

Employees

Customers

Service

Quality

Customization

(Functional)


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Customization

Functional Service

Technical Service

Cost Efficiency

Meet Needs of Customers

Meet needs of customers

Maximize employee efficiency

Reduce costs and increase productivity

Objectives and Goals


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Choosing the Location

  • Operational Position

  • Merchantability

  • Traffic interception

  • Cumulative competitive attraction

  • Competitive compatibility

  • Accessibility


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Physical Facility

  • Exterior Appearance

  • Interior Appearance

  • Ambient Conditions

  • Interpersonal Factors

  • Employee Appearance

  • Employee Behavior

Cost Efficiency: Maximize efficiency & productivity.

Customization: Focus on customers.

Technical SQ..: Maximize quality of technical output.

Functional SQ..: Maximize quality of customer

interaction.


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Strategies to Reduce Impact of Crowding

Operations Management:

1. Modify layout of facility.

2. Reduce capacity of facility.

3. Control number of customers in facility.

4. Hire more customer contact personnel.

Perceptions Management:

1. Use signs.

2. Modify ambient conditions.


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Entertainment Services

  • Spectator Sports

  • Recreational Theme Parks