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PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPE Chapter 10. Donna J. Hill, Ph.D. Service Marketing Spring 2000. Servicescape. Physical facility ---(interior & exterior) Ambient conditions ---(temp. colors, noises, smells) Other tangibles. Table 10-1 Elements of Physical Evidence.

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physical evidence and the servicescape chapter 10

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPEChapter 10

Donna J. Hill, Ph.D.

Service Marketing

Spring 2000

servicescape
Servicescape
  • Physical facility ---(interior & exterior)
  • Ambient conditions ---(temp. colors, noises, smells)
  • Other tangibles
impact of service environment
Impact of Service Environment
  • Purchase decision
  • Expectations
  • Service quality evaluations
  • Satisfaction
slide6
Table 10-3 Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape
roles of the servicescape
Roles of the Servicescape
  • Package
  • Facilitator
  • Socialize
  • Differentiator
figure 10 3 a framework for understanding environment user relationships in service organizations
Figure 10-3A Framework for UnderstandingEnvironment-user Relationships in Service Organizations

HOLISTIC

ENVIRONMENT

INTERNAL

RESPONSES

BEHAVIOR

PHYSICAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

DIMENSIONS

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Individual Behaviors

Employee Responses

Ambient Conditions

Space/Function

Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts

Perceived

Servicescape

Social Interactions between and among customer and employees

Customer Responses

Individual Behaviors

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner, “Servicescapes.”

framework for understanding servicescape effects on behavior
Framework for Understanding Servicescape Effects on Behavior
  • Internal Responses
    • Cognitive --- knowledge structure
    • Affective ---feelings & emotions
    • Physiological--- changes in
knowledge structures
Knowledge Structures
  • Beliefs
  • Categorization
  • Symbolic Meaning
emotional
Emotional
  • Mood
  • Attitude
affective responses
Affective Responses

Arousing

Distressing

Exciting

Unpleasant

Pleasant

Gloomy

Relaxing

Sleeping

physiological responses
Physiological Responses
  • Heart beat rate
  • Pupil dilation
  • Tears
  • Perspiration
  • Pain
physiological responses14
Physiological Responses

Cognitive

Physiological

Behavioral

Affective

individual behaviors created by servicescape
Individual Behaviors Created by Servicescape
  • Approach behaviors
  • Avoidance behaviors
  • Arousal seekers
  • Arousal avoiders
  • Environmental stimuli screeners
  • Environmental stimuli nonscreeners
social interactions
Social Interactions
  • Between and among customers and employees
environmental dimensions
Environmental Dimensions
  • Ambient Conditions
  • Spatial Layout and Functionality
  • Signs, Symbols and Artifacts
perceptions of crowding
Perceptions of Crowding
  • Environmental cues
  • Shopping motives
  • Constraints
  • Expectations of crowding
impact of crowding
Affective reactions

Reduce browsing

Adjust purchases

Reduce interaction with employees

Less confidence in purchase decision

Dissatisfied with experience

Reduce image of firm

Modify future purchase intentions

Impact of Crowding

Short-term

Long-term

maximizing the service environment
Maximizing the Service Environment

1. Recognize strategic impact.

2. Blueprint

3. Clarify roles of the Servicescape

4. Assess and identify physical evidence

opportunities.

5. Update and modernize

.

servicescape positioning
Servicescape Positioning

Cost Efficiency

Firm

(Technical)

Employees

Customers

Service

Quality

Customization

(Functional)

objectives and goals
Customization

Functional Service

Technical Service

Cost Efficiency

Meet Needs of Customers

Meet needs of customers

Maximize employee efficiency

Reduce costs and increase productivity

Objectives and Goals
choosing the location
Choosing the Location
  • Operational Position
  • Merchantability
  • Traffic interception
  • Cumulative competitive attraction
  • Competitive compatibility
  • Accessibility
physical facility
Physical Facility
  • Exterior Appearance
  • Interior Appearance
  • Ambient Conditions
  • Interpersonal Factors
  • Employee Appearance
  • Employee Behavior

Cost Efficiency: Maximize efficiency & productivity.

Customization: Focus on customers.

Technical SQ..: Maximize quality of technical output.

Functional SQ..: Maximize quality of customer

interaction.

strategies to reduce impact of crowding
Strategies to Reduce Impact of Crowding

Operations Management:

1. Modify layout of facility.

2. Reduce capacity of facility.

3. Control number of customers in facility.

4. Hire more customer contact personnel.

Perceptions Management:

1. Use signs.

2. Modify ambient conditions.

entertainment services
Entertainment Services
  • Spectator Sports
  • Recreational Theme Parks