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Training Program on Climate Change on 23-24 November, 2011 in Khulna. International treaties, negotiations and Bangladesh position. A.K.M. Saiful Islam. Associate Professor. Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM) Bangladesh University of Engineer and Technology (BUET). Outlines.

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International treaties negotiations and bangladesh position

Training Program on Climate Change on 23-24 November, 2011 in Khulna

International treaties, negotiations andBangladesh position

A.K.M. Saiful Islam

Associate Professor

Institute of Water and Flood Management (IWFM)

Bangladesh University of Engineer and Technology (BUET)


  • Responsibility : GHG Emission Scenarios


    • Kyoto Protocol (COP1 to COP7)

    • The Bali Action Plan (COP 13) in 2007

    • The Copenhagen Accord (COP15) in 2009

    • The Cancun Agreements (COP16) in 2010

    • Durban Conference (COP 17) in 2011

  • Bangladesh Position

International treaties negotiations and bangladesh position

Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions broken down into

8 different sectors for the year 2000.

International treaties negotiations and bangladesh position
CO into 2 from the measuring station at Mauna Loa (Hawaii) is located at a volcano at an altitude of 3400 meters. 

Per capita co 2 emission
Per capita CO into 2 emission

International treaties negotiations and bangladesh position

Bangladesh into

1990 – 0.1 ton

2009 – 0.36 ton

The intergovernmental panel on climate change ipcc
The Intergovernmental Panel on into Climate Change (IPCC)

  • IPCC was established in 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  • IPCC provides the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of knowledge in climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts.

  • As an intergovernmental body the IPCC is open to all member countries of the United Nations and WMO.

The united nations framework convention on climate change unfccc
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

  • UNFCCC has establish in 1994 to set an overall framework for global efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change.

  • UNFCCC recognizes that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by industrial and other emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.

  • Currently, there are 195 Parties (194 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the Convention.

The united nations framework convention on climate change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Governments are required to:

  • gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions, national policies and best practices

  • launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to expected impacts, including the provision of financial and technological support to developing countries

  • cooperate in preparing for adaptation to the impacts of climate change.

International treaties negotiations and bangladesh position

Since the UNFCCC entered into force in 1995, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC have been meeting annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change.

The COP adopts decisions and resolutions, published in reports of the COP.  Successive decisions taken by the COP make up a detailed set of rules for practical and effective implementation of the Convention.

Chronology 1
Chronology…(1) (UNFCCC)

1979 — The first World Climate Conference (WCC) takes place.

1988 — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is set up. 

1990 — IPCC’s first assessment report released. IPCC and second World Climate Conference call for a global treaty on climate change. United Nations General Assembly negotiations on a framework convention begin.

Contd 2
Contd..(2) (UNFCCC)

1991 — First meeting of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) takes place.

1992 — The INC adopts UNFCCC text. At the Earth Summit in Rio, the UNFCCC is opened for signature along with its sister Rio Conventions, UNCBD and UNCCD.

1994 — UNFCCC enters into force. An introduction to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. 

1995 — The first Conference of the Parties (COP 1) takes place in Berlin.

Contd 3
Contd..(3) (UNFCCC)

1997 — Kyoto Protocol formally adopted in December at COP3. 

1996 — The UNFCCC Secretariat is set up to support action under the Convention. 

2001 — Release of IPCC’s Third Assessment Report. Bonn Agreements adopted, based on the Buenos Aires Plan of Action of 1998. Marrakesh Accords adopted at COP7, detailing rules for implementation of Kyoto Protocol, setting up new funding and planning instruments for adaptation, and establishing a technology transfer framework.

Contd 4
Contd..(4) (UNFCCC)

2005 — Entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol. The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 1) takes place in Montreal.

In accordance with Kyoto Protocol requirements, Parties launched negotiations on the next phase of the KP under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP). What was to become the Nairobi Work Programme on Adaptation is accepted and agreed on. 

Contd 5
Contd..(5) (UNFCCC)

2007 — IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report released. Climate science entered into popular consciousness.

At COP13, Parties agreed on the Bali Road Map, which charted the way towards a post-2012 outcome in two work streams: the AWG-KP, and another under the Convention, known as the Ad-Hoc Working Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action (AWG-LC) Under the Convention.

Contd 6
Contd..(6) (UNFCCC)

2009 — CopenhagenAccord drafted at COP15 in Copenhagen. This was taken note of by the COP. Countries later submitted emissions reductions pledges or mitigation action pledges, all non-binding.

2010 — CancunAgreements drafted and largely accepted by the COP, at COP16.

2011 — On the road to COP17 in Durban.

Kyoto protocol

Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC)

What is the kyoto protocol
What is the Kyoto Protocol? (UNFCCC)

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997.

  • Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases to a 5.37% less than 1990.

The kyoto protocol
The Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC)

  • It sets binding targets. At the real heart of the Kyoto Protocol lies its set of legally-binding emissions targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions for 37 industrialized countries and the European Union.

  • These emissions targets amount to a total cut, among all Annex I Parties, of at least 5.37% from 1990 levels by 2008-2012.

Commitments annex b
Commitments: Annex B (UNFCCC)

*Some EITs have baseline year other than 1990.

**US does not intend to ratify the Protocol.

Kyoto protocol country targets

Country % of base (UNFCCC)

Australia 108

Austria 92

Belgium 92

Bulgaria 92

Canada 94

Croatia 92

Czech Republic 92

Denmark 92

Estonia 92

European Community 92

Finland 92

France 92

Germany 92

Greece 92

Hungary 94

Iceland 110

Country % of base

Italy 92

Japan 94

Lithuania 92

Netherlands 92

New Zealand 100

Norway 101

Poland 94

Portugal 92

Romania 92

Russian Federation 100

Spain 92

Sweden 92

Switzerland 92

Ukraine 100

United Kingdom 92

United States 93

Kyoto Protocol -Country Targets

Implementation mechanisms
Implementation: Mechanisms (UNFCCC)

  • The Kyoto Protocol defines three innovative “flexibility mechanisms” to lower the overall costs of achieving its emissions targets.

  • The Kyoto Protocol broke new ground with its three innovative mechanisms:

    • Joint implementation,

    • The clean development mechanism (CDM)

    • Emissions trading.

Implementation mechanisms1
Implementation: Mechanisms (UNFCCC)

  • All three mechanisms operate on the basis of accounting units.

    • Joint implementation projects result in emission reduction units (ERUs)

    • CDM projects generate certified emission reductions (CERs) and,

    • Under emissions trading, Annex I Parties may exchange assigned amount units (AAUs).

Joint implementation ji
Joint Implementation (JI) (UNFCCC)

  • Joint implementation (JI) allows Annex I Parties to implement projects that reduce emissions, or increase removals by sinks, in the territories of other Annex I Parties.

  • For example, replacing a coal-fired power plant with a more efficient combined heat and power plant. Currently Russia and Ukraine are slated to host the greatest number of JI projects

The clean development mechanism cdm
The clean development mechanism (CDM) (UNFCCC)

  • Provides for Annex I Parties to implement project activities that reduce emissions in non-Annex I Parties, in return for certified emission reductions (CERs). 

  • The economic basis for including developing countries in efforts to reduce emissions is that emission cuts are thought to be less expensive and weaker environmental regulations in developing countries than developed countries.

In 2005 , CDM expected

Emission trading
Emission trading (UNFCCC)

Emissions trading, allows countries that have emission units to spare - emissions permitted them but not "used" - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets.

Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals. Since carbon dioxide is the principal greenhouse gas, people speak simply of trading in carbon. Carbon is now tracked and traded like any other commodity. This is known as the "carbon market."

Land use land use change and forestry lulucf
Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) (UNFCCC)

The rate of build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere can be reduced by taking advantage of the fact that carbon can accumulate in vegetation and soils in terrestrial ecosystems.

Any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere is referred to as a "sink.“

A removal unit (RMU) on the basis of land use, LULUCF activities such as reforestation

U s response to the kyoto protocol
U.S. Response to the Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC)

  • The U.S. is the world’s single-largest source of CO2 emissions, accounting for 36% in 1990.

  • As such, U.S. ratification would clearly push the Kyoto thermometer above the 55% threshold and thus, bring the Protocol into force.

  • However, in March of 2001 President George W. Bush steadfastly rejected the Kyoto Protocol citing the “fact” that, “The Kyoto treaty would severely damage the United States’ economy…”

Why does the u s hesitate
Why Does the U.S. Hesitate? (UNFCCC)

  • Developing Countries are not included in the agreement.

  • Although the U.S. is currently the top emitter of carbon, China will overtake the U.S. by 2030.

U s senate opposition
U.S. Senate Opposition (UNFCCC)

  • In 2005, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed by a 95–0 vote the Byrd-Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98) which stated the sense of the Senate was that the United States should not be a signatory to any protocol that did not include binding targets and timetables for developing as well as industrialized nations or "would result in serious harm to the economy of the United States".

International treaties negotiations and bangladesh position
Plan ? (UNFCCC)

Situation ! (UNFCCC)

Future ! (UNFCCC)

Recent cops from bali to durban

Recent COPs (UNFCCC) (from Bali to Durban)

The bali action plan 5 point plan
The Bali Action Plan (UNFCCC)(5 point plan)

  • The Bali Action Plan was agreed upon at COP 13 in December, in Bali, Indonesia.

  • It calls for the full, effective and sustained implementation of the UNFCCC through long-term cooperative action up to and beyond 2012 by addressing :

  • A shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions.

  • Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change.

  • Enhanced action on adaptation.

  • Enhanced action on technologydevelopment and transfer to support action on mitigation and adaptation.

  • Enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation and technology cooperation.

The copenhagen accord
The Copenhagen Accord (UNFCCC)

  • The 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) to the UNFCCC took place in Denmark in the city of Copenhagen.

  • COP 15 noted the Copenhagen Accord at the final plenary on 18 December 2009.

  • Countries had to pledge their CO2 emission reductions.

  • The Accord is not legally binding and does not commit countries to agree to a binding successor to the Kyoto Protocol.

  • An assessment of the implementation of this Accord is to be completed by 2015.

The cancun agreements
The Cancun Agreements (UNFCCC)

  • COP 16 was held in Cancún, Mexico in 2010

  • Arising thereof the Cancun Agreements were adopted.

  • The Cancun Agreements are a set of significant decisions:

  • The international community agreed to address the long-term challenge of climate change collectively and comprehensively over time and to take concrete action now to speed up the global response.

  • The agreements represent key steps forward in capturing plans to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to help developing nations protect themselves from climate impacts and build their own sustainable futures.

Towards a new agreement in 2012
Towards a new agreement (UNFCCC)in 2012

  • Kyoto Protocol reaches its sell by date in 2012.

  • Processes have been taking place to replace it with a new binding agreement.

  • In 2007, The Bali Action Plan sought such an agreement.

  • COP 15 which took place in Copenhagen called for a new deal but could only come up with the Copenhagen Accord.

  • COP 16 which took place in Mexico in 2010 resulted in the CANCUN AGREEMENTS.

  • It is up to South Africa to ensure that a solid agreement is to happen in 2012.

Cop 17

  • Conference of Parties (COP) refers to the States that have signed on to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  • The parties have been meeting annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change since 1995.

  • COP 17 is therefore the 17th Conference that will take place at the end of this year (2011).

  • The COP 17- CMP 7 will mark a critical moment in the ongoing international climate change negotiations. CMP 7 means the seventh meeting of the Parties since the Kyoto Protocol was signed.

Cop 17 2011 united nations climate change conference
COP 17 (UNFCCC) : 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference

  • The 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference will be held in Durban, South Africa, from 28 November to 9 December 2011.

  • Officially it is referred to as the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the UNFCCC.

  • It is also the 7th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties (CMP 7) to the Kyoto Protocol.

  • In addition, the two permanent subsidiary bodies of the UNFCCC – the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) – are likely to hold their 35th sessions.

Bangladesh position

Bangladesh Position (UNFCCC)

Source: MoEF, Bangladesh

Mitigation bangladesh position
Mitigation: Bangladesh Position (UNFCCC)

  • Emphasizing a legally-binding mid term and long term emission reduction targets by Annex I Parties with 40% by 2020 and 85% by 2050 below 1990 levels.

  • Based on IPCC AR4, global emission reduction efforts must ensure at least 25-40% below 1990 levels by 2020 for Annex I and significantly below business as usual (BAU) emissions in 2020 for the non-Annex I countries as a group.

  • Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) Registry , proposed in Bali, should be web based and supported by developed countries.

  • Registry should not become a prior requirement or bottleneck to access funding, including from the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Mitigation bangladesh position cont
Mitigation: Bangladesh Position cont… (UNFCCC)

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Loopholes in LULUCF and market-based mechanisms that degrade reduction targets need to be excluded.

The global goals and limits must include emissions from international shipping and aviation

A legally binding agreement that is fair, effective, comprehensive and robust ensuring global environmental integrity

Durban should launch a clear roadmap with reasonable timeframe agreed by Parties towards reaching a legally binding agreement.

Adaptation bangladesh position
Adaptation: Bangladesh position (UNFCCC)

  • Adaptation Committee for Macro Management

  • Priority should be country driven

  • GCF or other financial entities will allocate resources for project implementation

  • Linkages with funding mechanism and technology

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Adaptation bangladesh position1
Adaptation: Bangladesh position (UNFCCC)

  • Finalization of adaptation text in Durban and operationalization adaptation activities

  • Member from LDCs in Adaptation Committee

  • Adaptation Committee must be under COP, not under any other subsidiary body such as SBI

  • Balanced allocation for Adaptation and Mitigation

  • Urgent and immediate fund for NAPA and BCCSAP implementation

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Awg kp bangladesh position
AWG-KP: Bangladesh position (UNFCCC)

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Five year 2nd commitment period of KP after 2012

Strong political decision is critical

Finalization and adoption of legally binding agreement ASAP

No more flexible mechanism for parties those are not in favor of KP 2nd cp

Technology bangladesh position
Technology: Bangladesh position (UNFCCC)

  • Operationalization of Clean Technology Center (CTC) and Networks at Durban

  • Country driven priority for technology access and transfer

  • Technology access, transfer and capacity building must be supported

  • Emphasis on both adaptation and mitigation technology

  • Linkages of technology with finance

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Finance bangladesh position
Finance: Bangladesh position (UNFCCC)

Transparency on Fast Start Fund (proposed in Copenhegen and Cancun of US$ 30 billion for the period 2010-2012) with urgent and immediate fund release

Mobilize of Green Climate Fund (GCF) in Durban [pledged 100 billion per annum]

A clear work plan on pledged of Annex I from post 2012 and up to 2020 for approval by COP 17

Direct access of fund by LDCs through national funding mechanism i.e. BCCTF (trust) and BCCRF (resilience)

Balanced allocation for adaptation and mitigation

Urgent and immediate fund for National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) and Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (BCCSAP) implementation

Source of information: Dr. Monjurul Hannan, Deputy Sec., MoEF

Thank you
Thank you (UNFCCC)