Civil War And Revolution Parliament’s opposition to the concept of royal supremacy led to conflict and rebellion in England.
Objectives • Explore what led to the conflicts between Charles I and Parliament. • Examine how the rebellion in Ireland helped start the English Civil War. • Identify who would have supported the two sides in the English Revolution. • Investigate what led to the down fall of the republican government.
What issues would divide a nation? • Disagreement over the form of government • Who should rule • Religion.
Reasons for the English Civil War • When James I died in 1625, his son Charles I became king • Charles was “worse” than King James I • Charles believed in divine right & • absolute monarchy; • refused to discuss ideas with Parliament— • only called Parliament when he needed money • How do you think Parliament felt towards the King?
Reasons for the English Civil War • Parliament got fed up with Charles I & refused to give him money unless signed Petition of Rights in 1628: • King could not jail people without a good reason • King could not make taxes without Parliament's approval • King could not keep his soldiers in peoples’ homes & could not use army to maintain order during peacetime
Civil War • Charles I was really mad at Parliament & refused to call another Parliament for 11 years until he needed money to end revolts in Ireland & Scotland. • Conflict between supporters of King (Royalists/Cavaliers) & Parliament grew so bad that a civil war was inevitable
Irish Rebellion • England had conquered Ireland in the 1100’s and Irish land was given to English settlers. • The native Irish Catholics were treated brutally by the British and worked as tenant farmers and Laborers. • They had few rights or freedoms and lived in constant fear of being dispossessed (evicted or cast out) by their English landlords. • 1641 resistance to British policies grew and a bloody rebellion began between the Irish Catholics and the English rule.
Civil War • Parliament needed a big army to put down the Irish rebellion, not trusting the King, they proposed to be in charge, Charles refuses he leads troops into the House of Commons to arrest some of his opponents. • War between Cavaliers (Royalists) v. Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) lasted for 5 years. • Roundheads found a strong leader in Oliver Cromwell; Cromwell and Roundheads won.
Nov 1647 • King Charles flees to Scotland and tries to rally the Scottish supporters, but Cromwell’s Army crushes them. • Cromwell controls parliament known as the Rump Parliament, abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. Proclaimed England a commonwealth or Republic. • A special court held tried King Charles I for treason.
Do you think the execution of King Charles I was justified? Defend one of the following statements: • King Charles I was within his rights when he entered the house of Commons to arrest radical leaders. • Parliament’s cause in the civil war was just. • King Charles was guilty of arrogance, not treason, and he should have not been executed. Must have at least one paragraph 5 sentences
After the Civil War • After the Civil War, a Commonwealth was created—type of government with no king & ruled by Parliament • Oliver Cromwell led the Commonwealth, but did not use democracy— he became a military dictator.
New Commonwealth • Life in the Commonwealth was harsh because it was led by Cromwell & the Puritans; Forced strict religious rules on people of England: • It was illegal to go to theaters & sporting events; “merrymaking” & “amusement” were illegal • Citizens hated living this way & began to want to bring back a king again