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  1. UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT • TWEP • TRANSBOUNDARY WATER AND ENERGY PROGRAM NARYN SYRDARYA PLANNING INSTRUMENT NASPI USER MANUAL

  2. INTRODUCTION THIS MANUAL IS A COMPLEMENT TO THE ONE WEEK NASPI USERS COURSE. THE MANUAL IS NOT ENTIRELY SELF EXPLANATORY BECAUSE MANY CONCEPTS AND FEATURES OF THE NASPI MODEL CAN ONLY BE EXPLAINED IN THROUGH EXAMPLES AND EXCERCISES THAT WILL BE PERFORMED DURING THE COURSE. HOWEVER, IT IS EXPECTED THAT PARTICIPANTS OF THE COURSE WILL FIND THIS AS A USEFUL REFERENCE TO FOLLOW THE LOGIC OF NASPI AND UNDERSTAND THE MANY DETAILED COMMENTS AVAILABLE DURING EXECUTION OF THE MODEL.

  3. OVERVIEW

  4. OBJECTIVE, CONCEPT AND EXPECTATION The objective of NASPI is to serve as a flexible and accurate representation of the Syr Darya river system to help planners test and develop procedures for the management of water storage based on a full understanding of their short and long term consequences. The NASPI concept revolves around the following key needs: 1. NASPI must be fully transparent to all users both in its logic and its data 2. NASPI must not determine how the system is to be managed. It must only test different management procedures and let the users decide which to use. 3. NASPI must be flexible to accommodate future changes in both system configuration and logic 4. NASPI must be easy to use without extensive knowledge of complex programming languages 5. User organizations must be capable of modifying NASPI to meet changing needs It is the expectation of USAID that NASPI will serve as a common technical language to help the countries sharing the Syr Darya river to negotiate the use of its transboundary waters on rational and fair terms

  5. WHAT NASPI IS NOT NASPI IS NOT AN OPTIMIZATION MODEL NASPI is a simulation model and not an optimization model. As such, NASPI does not make any decisions about how the reservoirs are to be operated. NASPI merely follows rules provided by the user in the form of a set of controls. However, it is not entirely practical to develop a simulation model that does not make any decision whatsoever because then the user would need to interact with the model during the simulation. While following the rules sometimes NASPI must make a decision about how to meet a certain water requirement when there is more than one source from which to chose, such as a branch of the river leading to two upstream reservoirs. The criterion used for this purpose is simple as will be explained in this document but the user must be aware that this is not the only criterion and it can be modified eventually if a different criterion proves more suitable. NASPI IS NOT A HYDRAULIC SIMULATION MODEL NASPI simulates the operation of the river system based on a daily balance of flows. NASPI is not a hydraulic simulation model because it does not take into account the detailed physical characteristics of the river, namely the slope, profile and rugosity of the river bed to determine the velocity and elevation of the water at every point. As such, NASPI cannot be used to determine flooded areas except when these areas are treated as reservoirs. Similarly NASPI cannot be used to manage the short term operation of a cascade if that operation requires decisions based on travel time of water.

  6. NASPI STRUCTURE 1 NASPI (excel) System Controls NASPI (fortran) input Data Input (Physical Environment) Daily Simulation of the Syr Darya River System for up to 100 years Output Output Output output Results Results Results

  7. HYDROPOWER CONCEPTS

  8. KEY HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONCEPTS 1

  9. KEY HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONCEPTS 1 HYDROELECTRIC POWER FORMULA: P = 9.81 * E * H * Q Where: P = power output in kilowatts (kW) 9.81 = acceleration of gravity in meters per second square (m/s2) E = power plant overall efficiency (includes hydraulic, mechanical and electrical efficiencies) H = head = difference in elevation upstream and downstream of turbine, in meters (m) Q = flow through the turbine in cubic meters per second (m3/s) When reservoirs are used for multiple objectives that include power generation the monthly pattern of water use affects not only the flow Q that goes through the turbine but also the head H that depends on the elevation of the reservoir. It also affects the efficiency E because some aspects of E are related to both H and Q. Since the electricity demand and the inflow of water into the reservoir also change according to a monthly pattern then the problem of optimizing the use of a reservoir for hydropower is complex. When other important uses of water are also present the problem becomes even more complex.

  10. KEY HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONCEPTS 2

  11. KEY HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONCEPTS 2 Hydroelectric generation is different every year due to variation in hydrologic conditions. Therefore, to measure the production of a hydroelectric plant it is necessary to use a record of several years of actual production. It is also possible to simulate the production of the plant using a simulation model and several years of hydrologic data. The average annual energy production based on all the years of available hydrologic data is called “mean annual energy”. The lowest annual energy poduction of all years is called “firm energy”. Therefore, firm energy, is the energy production that a hydroelectric plant can guarantee under the worst hydrologic conditions that may be anticipated. The difference between mean annual energy and firm energy is called “secondary energy”. The peaking capacity can also be calculated for every instant of the operation over the available hydrologic data. The lowest value of peaking capacity is called the “firm peaking capability” of the plant. The mean annual energy, the firm annual energy and the firm peaking capability are the most important parameters to determine the value of a hydroelectric plant.

  12. KEY HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONCEPTS 3 DEPENDS ON BOTH THE FIRM ENERGY AND THE PEAKING CAPABILITY OF THE HYDROELECTRIC SYSTEM ELECTRICITY DEMAND MW CAPACITY GUARANTEED BY HYDROELECTRIC POWER TOTAL CAPACITY REQUIRED FIRM HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY SECONDARY HYDROELECTRIC ENERGY THERMAL CAPACITY REQUIRED THERMAL PLANT ELECTRIC ENERGY ONE YEAR = 8760 HOURS MW ELECTRICITY DEMAND MW PLANNING THE EXPANSION OF GENERATING CAPACITY Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

  13. KEY HYDROELECTRIC POWER CONCEPTS 3 A reliable generation system must have enough generation capacity to meet its maximum expected demand even under the most critical hydrologic conditions. In fact, it should also have some additional capacity called “reserve capacity” but we shall ignore this detail to make the analysis more clear. The firm energy and the firm peaking capability of a hydroelectric plant or group of hydroelectric plants determine the maximum demand that it can cover during critical hydrologic conditions. This maximum demand that can be covered by the hydroelectric system under critical conditions is called “dependable hydroelectric capacity”. The planning of a generation system consists of: 1) Determining the maximum demand for several years into the future 2) Calculating the dependable hydroelectric capacity that will be available 3) Determining the amount of thermal generation capacity required Notice that the secondary hydroelectric energy does not have any value in terms of replacing thermal generation capacity. Its only value is in reducing the use of thermal generation capacity and saving fuel during years where the hydrologic conditions are not critical.

  14. RESERVOIR OPERATION RULE CURVES

  15. DIFFERENT RULE CURVES FOR DIFFERENT OBJECTIVES

  16. RESERVOIR OPERATION RULE CURVES If a hydroelectric reservoir is operated simply by following the demand it will experience two serious problems: In years of abundant water the turbines may not be able to pass all the water entering the reservoir and it can overflow. In years of low hydrology the reservoir may be emptied. This last one is a very bad situation because the head becomes so low that very little energy can be produced with the available water. These problems will lead to a low value of firm energy and peaking capacity and may also affect adversely the mean annual energy of the plant. These problems are avoided by operating the reservoir within maximum and minimum levels called “rule curves”. These rule curves are simply a set of reservoir elevations, usually defined at monthly intervals. Depending on the relative value of the mean annual energy, the firm energy and the peaking capability a rule curve will be designed to obtain the maximum power benefit from the reservoir. Rule curves can also be used to obtain other benefits from the reservoir such as irrigation, flood control and navigation by sacrificing some of the power benefits. In this simple example there are only two rule curves. The upper rule curve is used to prevent the reservoir from rising too fast and spilling water. The lower rule curve is used to keep it from dropping too fast and running dry. In practice it is customary to define several lower rule curves, each associated with a specific instruction to reduce water releases. This provides a gradual reduction in meeting water and power demands to prevent a sudden disruption of irrigation and electricity supply. NASPI uses four rule curves and they will be explained later in this presentation.

  17. NASPI STRUCTURE AND RIVER SYSTEM REPRESENTATION

  18. NASPI.XLS STRUCTURE Data Export pages DOS Files SYSTEM CONTROL INPUT INPUT.CSV NASPI.EXE Graphic Result Pages Table Result Pages Data Import Pages WATER BALANCE PLOTS WATER BALANCE TABLES OU1 OU2 OU3 OU4 OU5 OU6 OU7 NASPI.OU1 NASPI.OU2 NASPI.OU3 NASPI.OU4 NASPI.OU5 NASPI.OU6 NASPI.OU7 RESERVOIR PLOTS RESERVOIR TABLES POWERPLANT PLOTS POWERPLANT TABLES POWER COST

  19. NASPI STRUCTURE NASPI consists of two files: NASPI.EXE and NASPI.XLS. NASPI.EXE is the executable form of a program written in Fortran language and stored as a file NASPI.FOR. This program contains the entire logic of NASPI and its structure and design is the subject of a specific course for NASPI Programmers or support personnel. In this course for NASPI Users the logic of NASPI.EXE will be described but not the way in which that logic is put in the form of NASPI.FOR or how to turn NASPI.FOR into NASPI.EXE. Fortran programs are powerful and efficient in terns of calculation speed and their ability to represent complex systems by mathematical algorithms. However they operate with very rigid and simple input and output data files. This makes them difficult to operate and limits the possibility of graphical outputs in comparison with more user-friendly software such as Excel. NASPI resolves these limitations by handling all input and output via a single large Excel workbook with multiple pages. This workbook is the file NASPI.XLS NASPI.XLS has one page dedicated to the controls that the user may use to guide the operation of the reservoirs. Another page is dedicated to all the data on the river system including hydrologic records. This page is used to provide input data to NASPI.EXE. Several pages are dedicated to accept different types of output from NASPI.EXE. Finally, several pages are used to convert the output received from NASPI.EXE into tables and graphs summarizing the results,

  20. RIVER SYSTEM COMPONENTS RIVER REACH CONSTANT HEAD POWERPLANT INFLOW DEMAND RIVER SIDE INFLOWS CONSTANT HEAD LOSSES RIVER POWERHOUSE OUTFLOW RESERVOIR AND VARIABLE HEAD POWERPLANT SPILLWAY FLOW MAXIMUM LEVEL (Point 20) RULE CURVE 1 RESERVOIR TURBINE DESIGN LEVEL RULE CURVE 2 TURBINE DESIGN HEAD RULE CURVE 3 TURBINE INTAKE LEVEL MINIMUM TURBINE HEAD TURBINE FLOW RULE CURVE 4 BOTTOM OUTLET FLOW BOTTOM OUTLET INTAKE LEVEL (Point 2) RIVER POWERHOUSE MINIMUM LEVEL (Point 1)

  21. RIVER SYSTEM COMPONENTS NASPI is built using three types of river system components as follows: A River Reach (abbreviated Reach) is a segment of the river. The segment is defined by three parameters: water demand and water losses defined as monthly constants in cubic meters per second and independent of hydrologic year. Side inflows defined as a record of monthly flows in cubic meters per second. NASPI is designed for 20 REACH A Constant Head Electric Plant (abbreviated CHEP) is a plant that is assumed to have always the same water elevation upstream and downstream of the plant. The power production is calculated as: P = 9.81*E*H*Q where P is power in kilowatts and is limited by the capacity C of the plant; 9.81 is the acceleration of gravity in meters per second square; E is a constant efficiency; H is the constant head in meters and Q is the flow in cubic meters per second. When Q > {C/(9.81*E*H*C) then the power P = C and the excess flow is assumed to be spilled. NASPI is designed for 20 CHEP. A Reservoir and Variable Head Electric Plant (abbreviated VHEP) is a complex component. The reservoir is represented by 20 points, each point corresponds to one elevation and its associated reservoir volume and surface area. The reservoir also has specific physical characteristics including the elevation of the turbine intake and the elevation of the intake of a bottom outlet. There are also control elevations known as rule curves which are defined monthly to control the operation of the reservoirs. The powerplant is represented by the capacity C, the design head, the minimum head and the efficiency at design head and at minimum head. The bottom outlet is represented by a maximum flow at the maximum reservoir elevation and is assumed to follow the formula Q=K*H^0.5 where Q is flow in cubic meters per second, H is the head on the bottom outlet and K is a constant. NASPI is designed for 10 VHEP.

  22. RESERVOIR POWERPLANT RIVER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION REACH NARYN CASCADE VHEP 1 = TOKTOGUL CONFLUENCE VHEP 2 = ANDIJAN SPECIAL CONDITION REACH 1 = TOKTOGUL - KURUPSAY CHEP 1 = KURUPSAY REACH 2 = KURUPSAY-TASHKUMIR REACH 14 = OTVODIASCHY CANAL CHEP 2 = TASHKUMIR REACH 3 =TASHKUMIR-SHAMALDISAY REACH 6 = ANDIJAN - NARYN/KARADARYA CHEP 3 = SHAMALDISAY REACH 4 = SHAMALDISAY - UCHKURGAN CHEP 4 = UCHKURGAN REACH 5 = UCHURGAN - NARYN/KARADARYA REACH 7 = NARYN/KARADARYA-AKJAR REACH 13 = AKJAR-KAYRAKKUM VHEP 3 = KAYRAKKUM VHEP 4 = CHARVAK REACH 8 = KAYRAKKUM-FARKHAD REACH 10 = CHARVAK-CHINAZ REACH 9 = FARKHAD - CHINAZ REACH 11 = CHINAZ-CHARDARA VHEP 6 = ARNASAY VHEP 5 = CHARDARA REACH 12 = CHARDARA-ARAL REACH 15 = KYZYLKUM CANAL

  23. RIVER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION The Naryn-Syr Darya river system is represented by 15 river reaches (REACH), 4 constant head electric plants (CHEP) and 6 reservoirs with variable head electric plants (VHEP). Reservoirs are represented by the green triangles, powerplants by the red circles and river reaches by the yellow rectangles. The order of the numbers is not important. A new REACH, VHEP or CHEP can be added with new consecutive numbers, the program logic defines the relation between each component regardless of their number. The dark blue squares represent confluences that merit special treatment in the logic. The light blue squares represent other conditions that merit special treatment in the logic. .Many other constant head plants exist in the system in addition to those in the Naryn cascade but have not been included because for the purpose of NASPI only the plants in the Naryn cascade represent an operational objective. It is very easy to add other CHEP if necessary. The Arnasay reservoir does not contain a powerplant but it is treated as a VHEP with plant capacity zero. The flow from Chardara to Arnasay is governed by a special logic that depends on the elevation of Chardara and on the annual volume transferred from Chardara to Aranasay. The flow into Kyzylkum canal is treated in a special way because it will affect the elevation of Chardara and therefore the condition of transfer from Chardara to Arnasay.

  24. NASPI LOGIC

  25. OPTIONS FOR TOKTOGUL RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT TARGET RELEASE OPTION (MODE 2) This option is for Toktogul only RULE CURVE OPTION (MODE 1) This is the only option on all other reservoirs DEFINE LONG TERM MONTHLY TARGET RELEASE FROM EACH RESERVOIR DEFINE LONG TERM MONTHLY RULE CURVES FOR EACH RESERVOIR ANNUALLY ADJUST THE LONG TERM MONTHLY TARGETS BASED ON RECENT HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS DAILY PROPOSE THE IDEAL RELEASES FROM EACH RESERVOIR BASED ON WATER AND POWER DEMANDS AND ON THEIR RELATIVE STORAGE POSITION OPERATE THE RESERVOIRS BY ATTEMPTING TO MEET THE ADJUSTED MONTHLY RELEASE TARGETS AND PRODUCE AS MUCH POWER AS POSSIBLE WITH THOSE RELEASES SUBJECT ONLY TO PHYSICAL LIMITATIONS: 1. POWER PRODUCTION SUBJECT TO POWER PLANT CAPACITY AND SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION ABOVE POWER PLANT INTAKE 2. MAXIMUM WATER RELEASE SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO POWER PLANT AND BOTTOM OUTLET INTAKES 3. MINIMUM WATER RELEASE SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO MAXIMUM RESERVOIR ELEVATION OPERATE RESERVOIRS BY ATTEMPTING TO MEET THE PROPOSED IDEAL RELEASE SUBJECT TO PHYSICAL AND RULE CURVE LIMITATIONS: 1. POWER PRODUCTION SUBJECT TO POWER PLANT CAPACITY, SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION ABOVE POWER PLANT INTAKE AND SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO RULE CURVES 2. MAXIMUM WATER RELEASE SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO POWER PLANT AND BOTTOM OUTLET INTAKES AND SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIUVE TO RULE CURVES 2, 3 AND 4 3. MINIMUM WATER RELEASE SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO MAXIMUM RESERVOIR ELEVATION AND SUBJECT TO RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO RULE CURVE 1

  26. SUMMARY OF NASPI LOGIC YEAR Y ADJUST TOKTOGUL RELEASE TARGETS BASED ON HYDROLOGY OF LAST RECENT YEARS MONTH M DOWNSTREAM ANALYSIS (SIMULATION) SELECT APPLICABLE MONTHLY TOKTOGUL RELEASE TARGET AND APPLICABLE MONTHLY RULE CURVES FOR ALL RESERVOIRS 1 DAY D 2 M ODE UPSTREAM ANALYSIS (PREPARATION) OPERATE TOKTOGUL BASED ON PROPOSED RELEASE AND RULE CURVES OPERATE TOKTOGUL BASED ON ADJUSTED TARGET RELEASE CALCULATE PROPOSED RELEASES FOR ALL RESERVOIRS EXCEPT TOKTOGUL BASED ON WATER AND POWER DEMAND OPERATE ALL OTHER RESERVOIRS BASED ON RULE CURVES 1 MODE 2 CALCULATE PROPOSED RELEASE FOR TOKTOGUL BASED ON DEMAND NEXT DAY

  27. SINGLE RESERVOIR LOGIC FOR PROPOSED RELEASES STEP 4 Proposed Reservoir Release = I(1) I(1) = Inflow Required to Reach 1 = { I(2) + [ D(1) + L(1) - S(1) ] } > 0 STEP 3 D(1) = Demand on Reach 1 S(1) = Side Inflows to Reach 1 L(1) = Losses on Reach 1 I(2) = Inflow Required to Reach 2 = { I(3) + [ D(2) + L(2) - S(2) ] } > 0 STEP 2 LOGIC FLOW DIRECTION D(1) = Demand on Reach 1 S(2) = Side Inflows to Reach 2 L(1) = Losses on Reach 1 STEP 1 I(3) = Inflow Required to Reach 3 = [ D(3) + L(3) - S(3) ] > 0 D(3) = Demand on Reach 3 S(3) = Side Inflows to Reach 3 L(3) = Losses on Reach 3 RIVER FLOW DIRECTION

  28. MULTIPLE RESERVOIR LOGIC FOR PROPOSED RELEASES RESERVOIR 1 RESERVOIR 2 P(1) = Proposed Release P(1) = [ I(1) + I(3)*AF(3,1) ] > 0 P(2) = Proposed Release P(2) = [ I(2) + I(2)*AF(3,2) ] > 0 SEE WATER ALLOCATION LOGIC REACH 1 REACH 2 I(1) = [ D(1) + L(1) - S(1) I(2) = [ D(2) + L(2) - S(2) REACH 3 I(3) = Required Inflow to Reach 3

  29. WATER ALLOCATION LOGIC DATA I(1) = Current inflow to Reservoir 1 VP(1) = Storage volume of Reservoir 1 at current position VR3(1) = Storage volume of Reservoir 1 at Rule Curve 3 Level R(1) = Required release of Reservoir 1 to meet demands that only Reservoir 1 can supply I(2) = Current inflow to Reservoir 2 VP(2) = Storage volume of Reservoir 2 at current position VR3(2) = Storage volume of Reservoir 2 at Rule Curve 3 Level R(2) = Required release of Reservoir 2 to meet demands that only Reservoir 2 can supply F = Flow requirement that both Reservoirs 1 and 2 can supply INTERMEDIATE CALCULATION D(x) = number of days for reservoir X to arrive at Rule Curve 3 supplying all of F D(x) = [ VP(x) - VR3(x) ] / { 3600*24)*[ F + R(x) - I(x) ] RESULT AF(1) = D(1) / [D(1)+D(2)] AF(2) = D(2) / [D(1)+D(2)]

  30. TARGET RELEASE OPERATION (MODE 2)LOGIC FOR ADJUSTING TARGET RELEASES DATA TOKTOGUL LONG TERM AVERAGE INFLOW = QLT TOKTOGUL MONTHLY TARGET RELEASES = T(1), T(2),…T(12) H = NUMBER OF YEARS OF RECENT HYDROLOGIC HISTORY TO CONSIDER S = ADJUSTMENT SENSITIVITY (1=FULL SENSITIVITY, 0=NO SENSITIVITY) OPERATION AT THE BEGINNING OF YEAR K QST = AVERAGE TOKTOGUL SHORT TERM INFLOW (YEARS K-1, K-2….,K-H) F = ADJUSTMENT FACTOR = 1 + S *[ (QST-QLT)/QLT] T’(M) = ADJUSTED MONTHLY TARGET FOR MONTH M OF YEAR K = T(M) * F, M =1,2…12

  31. RESERVOIR OPERATION LOGIC 1 DATA FROM INPUT RESERVOIR PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS POWER PLANT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS BOTTOM OUTLET CHARACTERISTICS MONTHLY EVAPORATION RULE CURVES DATA FROM MAIN PROGRAM INITIAL RESERVOIR ELEVATION INFLOW PROPOSED RELEASE OR TARGET RELEASE RELEASE = PROPOSED RELEASE OR TARGET RELEASE 1 MODE 2 SEE RULE CURVE LOGIC ADJUST RELEASE DEPENDING ON RESERVOIR ELEVATION RELATIVE TO RULE CURVES ESTIMATE FINAL ELEVATION BASED ON INITIAL ELEVATION, RELEASE AND EVAPORATION A

  32. RESERVOIR OPERATION LOGIC 2 A FINAL ELEVATION > TURBINE INTAKE LEVEL < TURBINE INTAKE LEVEL SEE POWER PLANT LOGIC DETERMINE MAXIMUM TURBINE FLOW MAXIMUM TURBINE FLOW IS ZERO > BOTTOM OUTLET INTAKE LEVEL FINAL ELEVATION < BOTTOM OUTLET INTAKE LEVEL SEE BOTTOM OUTLET LOGIC DETERMINE MAXIMUM BOTTOM OUTLET FLOW MAXIMUM BOTTOM OUTLET FLOW IS ZERO B

  33. RESERVOIR OPERATION LOGIC 3 B ASSIGN RELEASE TO TURBINE FLOW COMPUTE RESIDUAL RELEASE ASSIGN RESIDUAL RELEASE TO BOTTOM OUTLET FLOW RECALCULATE FINAL ELEVATION > MAXIMUM RESERVOIR ELEVATION < MAXIMUM RESERVOIR ELEVATION FINAL ELEVATION CALCULATE SPILLWAY FLOW SPILLWAY FLOW IS ZERO FINAL ELEVATION = MAXIMUM RESERVOIR ELEVATION CALCULATE MEAN HEAD AND POWER OUTPUT END

  34. RULE CURVE LOGIC 1 Water above this level is spilled Maximum Level - Point 20 Spill danger above this level RC-1 Spill Control Level RCF-1 > 1 RCF-2 = 1 RC-2 Upstream Request Level Release is requested upstream to maintain reservoir level RCF-2 < 1 RC-3 Low Level Alert No releases to supply water to points served by other reservoirs RCF-4 << 1 Critical Level Alert Essential release only Bottom Outlet Intake - Point 2 No release below this level Evaporation losses continue Zero Volume - Point 1 No evaporation losses

  35. RULE CURVE LOGIC 2 Rule Curve 1 – Spill Control Level This rule curve (RC-1) is used to reduce spilled water. The effect of RC-1 is to increase the proposed release before the reservoir is completely full and spill is inevitable. The Rule Curve Factor (RCF-1) should be always greater than 1.00 Rule Curve 2 – Upstream Request Level RC-2 is used to maintain the reservoir at a constant elevation by requesting upstream the same amount of water that is released. The RCF-2 should be 1.00 or less. If it is 1.00 the proposed release will be met while water is requested upstream. Rule Curve 3 – Low Reservoir Alert RC-3 is used for two purposes. 1) If the RCF-3 is less than one it will reduce the proposed release to prevent the reservoir from drawing down too fast when there is insufficient water upstream.  2) When two reservoirs can be used to deliver water to the same point this RC-3 will control the proportion that is released from each reservoir. The higher the RC-3 the less the proportion requested. RCF-3 has no relevance for this objective. Rule Curve 4 – Critical Reservoir Level RC-4 is used to signal the elevation at which the supply must be seriously reduced. RCF-4 must be much lower than 1.00.

  36. POWER PLANT LOGIC 1 HEAD C DATA CAPACITY (KW) C TAILWATER LEVEL (M) T NOMINAL HEAD (M) Hn MINIMUM HEAD (M) Hm EFFICIENCY AT NOMINAL HEAD En EFFICIENCY AT MINIMUM HEAD Em En Hn EFFICIENCY E POWER P FLOW Q Em Hm Qmax = C / [9.81*En*Hn] p = 9,81*E*H*q q = ø * H**0.5 P=C Q=C/(9,81*E*H)

  37. POWER PLANT LOGIC 2 R = proposed release L = reservoir level I = intake Level = T + Hm H=head < I L > I Calculate Qmax Calculate E P = 0 Q = 0 T = tailwater > Qmax < Qmax R Q = Qmax Q = R P = 9.81*E*H*Q END

  38. BOTTOM OUTLET LOGIC KEY EQUATION FOR BOTTOM OUTLET (B.O.) B.O. FLOW = B.O. CONSTANT * (B.O. HEAD)**0.5 DATA RESERVOIR LEVEL TAILWATER LEVEL FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL BOTTOM OUTLET MAXIMUM FLOW DETERMINATION OF BOTTOM OUTLET FLOW B.O. MAXIMUM HEAD = FULL RESERVOIR LEVEL - B.O. INTAKE LEVEL B.O. CONSTANT = B.O. MAXIMUM FLOW / (B.O. MAXIMUM HEAD)**0.5 B.O. HEAD = RESERVOIR LEVEL - TAILWATER LEVEL B.O. FLOW = B.O. CONSTANT * (B.O. HEAD)** 0.5

  39. RUNNING NASPI SCREEN CONTROL = 1 FAST RUN - NO RESULTS SHOWN SCREEN CONTROL = 2 MONTHLY SUMMARY OF RESULTS SCREEN CONTROL = 3 DAILY SUMMARY OF RESULTS SCREEN CONTROL = 4 DETAILED CALCULATION FOLLOW UP SCREEN CONTROL = 5 FOLLOW UP INCLUDING INTERPOLATION PROCESSES SCREEN CONTROL = -1 WILL PROMPT FOR YEAR AND MONTH SETS SCREEN CONTROL = 4 AT THE BEGINNING OF SELECTED YEAR AND MONTH