classical studies 202 ancient roman society lecture 2 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Classical Studies 202 Ancient Roman Society Lecture # 2 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Classical Studies 202 Ancient Roman Society Lecture # 2

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Classical Studies 202 Ancient Roman Society Lecture # 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 219 Views
  • Uploaded on

Classical Studies 202 Ancient Roman Society Lecture # 2. - THE EARLY REPUBLIC (509 - 264 BC) - - G O V E R N M E N T – REPUBLICAN IDEALS – BREAK – - FAMILY LIFE - - WOMEN – - C H I L D R E N - - REPUBLICAN LITERATURE -. THE EARLY REPUBLIC (509 - 264 BC).

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Classical Studies 202 Ancient Roman Society Lecture # 2' - maribeth


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
classical studies 202 ancient roman society lecture 2
Classical Studies 202Ancient Roman SocietyLecture # 2

- THE EARLY REPUBLIC (509 - 264 BC) -

- G O V E R N M E N T –

  • REPUBLICAN IDEALS –
  • BREAK –

- FAMILY LIFE -

- WOMEN –

- C H I L D R E N -

- REPUBLICAN LITERATURE -

the early republic 509 264 bc
THE EARLY REPUBLIC (509 - 264 BC)
  • 510/509 BC expulsion of Etruscan Kings
  • Romans date this as 244 a.u.c.(ab urbe condita = “from the foundation of the city”) 244 + 509 = 753 BC
  • “res publica” (commonwealth, republic)
  • Consuls (chief magistrates)
  • Dictator - 6 months maximum
  • Horatius legend
horatius cocles the one eyed
509 BC the Etruscan king Lars Porsenna of Clusium attacked Rome

Horatiusdefended the Pons Sublicius bridge

Tiberinus, holy father, I pray thee to receive into thy propitious stream these arms and this thy warrior."

Horatius Cocles (“The One- Eyed”)
the early republic 509 264 bc4
THE EARLY REPUBLIC (509 - 264 BC)
  • Tribunes (representatives of the plebs)
  • Plebeian Council
  • Twelve Tables (450 BC)
  • 493 BC Latin League
  • “Divide & Conquer”
  • 480 – 396 BC Veii (Etruscan city north of Rome)
the sack of rome
The Sack of Rome
  • Gauls are tall, and blonde or red-haired (woad dipped!)
  • Many huge, migratory tribes in France
  • Very aggressive footsoldiers, cavalry and charioteers
  • Heroic warfare still important
  • Fanatics would fight naked!
  • 390/387 sack Rome : Brennus
  • “Vae Victis” : “Woe to the Vanquished”
  • Capitol (citadel on Capitoline Hill)
rome expands
Rome Expands
  • “Servian” Wall (really dates to 380's, not Servius Tullius)
  • ager publicus ( land belonging to the state)
  • colonies (veteran settlement in captured territories)
  • Samnite Wars (343 - 290 BC)
  • 321 BC Caudine Forks : “Pass Beneath the Yolk”
  • Via Appia : fortified road from Rome to Campania via Latium
the samnites
Herdsmen, who live in the hills east and south of Rome

Huge families threaten to swamp Italy

Mobile experts at mountain and rough ground fighting & skirmishing

The Samnites
the pyrrhic wars
The Pyrrhic Wars
  • Tarentum
  • King Pyrrhus of Epirus (cousin of Alexander the Great)
  • 280 – 275 BC Pyrrhic Wars
  • 264 BC Rome is “Domina” of central and southern Italy
g o v e r n m e n t
G O V E R N M E N T
  • S.P.Q.R. (The Senate and Roman People)
  • Senate (aristocratic, 300 > 600 members)
  • - major legislation
  • - foreign policy
  • - senatus consultum (decree of the Senate)
  • Popular Assemblies
  • (1) Curiate (30 curias): - approve adoptions, wills
  • -bestow power on senior magistrates
g o v e r n m e n t10
G O V E R N M E N T
  • (2) Centuriate (193 centuries): based on wealth and military potential
  • -80 votes for rich aristocrats
  • -18 votes for Equestrians
  • -rest for lesser propertied and poorer citizens
  • -no vote for the Proletariat
  • -rich can always outvote the poor
  • -elect senior magistrates (Consuls, Censors and Praetors)
  • -declare war
  • -capital appeals court
g o v e r n m e n t11
G O V E R N M E N T
  • (3) Tribal (20 > 35 tribes): -4 in Rome and 31 in country
  • - elect lower magistrates(10 Tribunes)
  • -all socio-economic classes together
  • -legislation
  • -non-capital appeals court
g o v e r n m e n t12
G O V E R N M E N T
  • Plebeian Council (471 BC)
  • plebiscite (decision of the plebs) = law, 287 BC
  • Magistrates:
  • cursus honorum (senatorial career pattern)
  • quaestor (20) - financial, incl. provincial treasurer
  • aediles (4) - in charge of streets, markets, festivals, public works
  • praetor (8) – in charge of public law courts or governor
  • consul (2) - chief magistrate
g o v e r n m e n t13
G O V E R N M E N T
  • proconsul, propraetor (magistrate serving in province, whose power is extended an extra year)
  • censor (2, every 5 years) - census, morals
  • tribune (10) - represent plebs

- sacrosanctity

- veto

  • dictator (1) - only in emergency (for 6 months max.)
  • lictors - carry fasces
republican ideals
REPUBLICAN IDEALS
  • mos maiorum (ancestral customs)
  • gravitas (seriousness)
  • pietas (respect for authority to the gods, state and family)
  • religio (being “bound” to the gods)
  • virtus (manliness, courage)
  • fides (loyalty, faithfulness, honesty, integrity)
  • simplicitas (plain lifestyle)
  • clementia (calculated mercy)
  • frugalitas (frugality)
family life
FAMILY LIFE
  • familia (family)
  • Differences between Roman and “modern” families
  • paterfamilias (male head of the family)
  • patria potestas (authority of the paterfamilias)
  • genius (protective spirit)
  • matrona (wife of the paterfamilias)
women
WOMEN
  • bias of our evidence (written by men for men)
  • role of women:

- biological (childbirth, sex)

- economic (dowry, household management, labour, wool-working)

-supervise slaves, children

  • high moral standard expected (otherwise could be killed)
  • little involvement in public life (service to emperor or deity)
  • demonstration against Oppian Law on luxury (195 BC)
women17
WOMEN
  • some notable women:
  • Cornelia (mother of the Gracchi)
  • Laelia, Hortensia (orators)
  • Iaia of Cyzicus (painter)
  • Theophila (philosopher-poet, compared with Sappho)
  • Hypatia (philosopher-mathematician)
  • Demo (commentator on Homer)
  • criticism of women: Juvenal's 6th satire
  • praise of women: Quintilian; eulogy of Turia
women18
WOMEN
  • legal dependency: male control (father, husband, guardian)

-incl. exposure, arranged marriages

  • double standard re. adultery, citizenship
  • home bodies, or party animals? e.g. Livy vs. Ovid; Sabine women;
  • Lucretia; Good Goddess; Papirius; poison mystery (331 BC)
  • women in work force (jobs attested in inscriptions, reliefs)
c h i l d r e n
C H I L D R E N
  • (sources: Pliny the Elder, Lucretius, Soranus, Quintilian, Martial, Cicero, Plutarch)
  • Augustus' legislation to encourage children
  • use of contraceptives
  • strange ideas on mechanics of birth
  • miscarriages
  • abortion (e.g. Domitian's niece)
  • exposure by paterfamilias
  • adoption
c h i l d r e n20
C H I L D R E N
  • size of families (e.g. Germanicus, Marcus Aurelius)
  • illegitimate children
  • treatment of children
  • alimenta (relief scheme for farmers and needy children)
republican literature
REPUBLICAN LITERATURE
  • no Latin literature until 3rd c. BC
  • "Captive Greece captured her rude conqueror" (Horace)
  • 3rd c.: Livius Andronicus (translated Homer's Odyssey; plays)
  • 2nd c.: Ennius (Annals = Roman history in verse; plays)
  • Polybius, a Greek (prose History of Rome)
  • Plautus (slapstick comedies, set in Greece)
  • Terence (psychological comedies; plagiarized?)
  • Cato, "father of Latin prose" (technical subjects)
  • Lucilius (satire, the only lit. form invented by Romans)
republican literature22
REPUBLICAN LITERATURE
  • (GOLDEN AGE (1st c. ):
  • Lucretius (philosophical poetry = Epicurean)
  • Catullus (Alexandrian school of lyric poetry; Lesbia)
  • Cicero (speeches; philosophical dialogues; letters to Atticus)
  • Caesar (historical commentaries on Gallic and civil wars)
  • Sallust (histories of Jugurthine war, Catiline’s conspiracy)
the lyric poetry of gaius valerius catullus
THE LYRIC POETRY OF GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

Poem I

“Julius Caesar, you’re a snot,

I don’t care if you like it or not.

Maybe you’re good luck, maybe you’re bad,

I don’t care, now go on, and be mad.”

the lyric poetry of gaius valerius catullus24
THE LYRIC POETRY OF GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

Poem V

“My Lesbia, let us live and let us love

And not care two cents for old men

Who sermonise and disapprove.

Suns when they sink can rise again,

But we, when our brief light has shone,

Must sleep the long night on and on.

Kiss me: a thousand kisses, then

A hundred more, and now a second

Thousand and hundred, and now still

Hundreds and thousands more, until

The thousands thousands can’t be counted

And we’ve lost track of the amount

And nobody can work us ill

With the evil eye by keeping count.”

the lyric poetry of gaius valerius catullus25
THE LYRIC POETRY OF GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

Poem CXX

“She swears she’d rather marry me

Than anyone – even Jupiter,

Supposing he were courting here.

She swears; but what a girl will swear

To the man who loves her ought to be

Scribbled on water, scrawled on air.”

the lyric poetry of gaius valerius catullus26
THE LYRIC POETRY OF GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

Poem VIIIL

“Lesbia spits all day against my name,

And yet I’ll stake my life she loves me.

Why?

I curse her all the time – I’ve just the same symptoms

If I don’t love her, let me die.”

the lyric poetry of gaius valerius catullus27
THE LYRIC POETRY OF GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

Poem VIIC

“How do you, girl with the outsize nose,

Colourless eyes, stub fingers, ugly toes,

Coarse conversation and lips none too dry,

Friend of the bankrupt man from Formiae.

Are you the lady whom Cisapline Gaul

Ranks with my Lesbia and dares to call

Beautiful? O provincial generation –

No taste, no culture, no imagination!”

the lyric poetry of gaius valerius catullus28
THE LYRIC POETRY OF GAIUS VALERIUS CATULLUS

Poem CXIX

“Rufus, it’s no matter for surprise

That no girl offers you her tender thighs,

Not even though you work at undermining

Virtue with gifts of rare silks and clear-shining,

Mouth-watering stones. An ugly rumour harms

Your reputation. Underneath your arms

They say you keep a fierce goat which alarms

All comers – and no wonder, for the least

Beauty would never bed with that rank beast.

So either kill the pest that makes the stink

Or else stop wondering why the women shrink.”