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Color and Image Processing Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology University of Aachen D-52056 Aachen, Germany Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bernhard Hill Tel. +49 (0) 241 802 7703; E-mail: hill@ite.rwth-aachen.de. S l. j l. Multispectal Image Capture. Multiprimary Display.

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slide1

Color and Image Processing

Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

University of Aachen

D-52056 Aachen, Germany

Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Bernhard Hill

Tel. +49 (0) 241 802 7703; E-mail: hill@ite.rwth-aachen.de

Sl

jl

slide2

Multispectal Image Capture

Multiprimary Display

Softproof Workstation

Color and Image Processing:

Main Objectives

slide3

Standards developed within

IEC TC 100 - TA2:

“Color Measurement and Management in

Multimedia Systems and Equipment”

Represented in Germany by:

DKE (Frankfurt)

Committee 742.06

“Multimedia Systeme und Geräte

-Farbmessung und Farbmanagment-”

slide4

Projects and standards:

Default RGB colour space - sRGB

Extended precision RGB colour space

Default YCC colour space - sYCC

Equipment using cathode ray tubes

Eqipment using liquid crystal display panels

Eqipment using plasma displays

Colour printers

Colour scanners

Colour cameras

Colour image projectors

slide6

X 0.4124 0.3576 0.1805 RsRGB

Y = 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 GsRGB

Z 0.0193 0.1192 0.9505 BsRGB

red

green

blue

The story of the default RGB color space

(sRGB: a display color space IEC 61966-2-1)

Linear transformation

XYZ

matrix(3x3)

RGBsRGB

nonlinear distortion

RGB´sRGB

digitization

RGB8Bit

linear relation between XYZ und sRGB:

Primaries according to chromaticities ITU-R BT.709.3

slide7

R8Bit

255

0

Nonlinear distortion:

R´sRGB

1.0

-> RsRGB

0.0

RsRGB > 0.0031308

R´sRGB = 1.055 RsRGB(1/2.4) - 0.055

RsRGB > 0.0031308

R´sRGB = 12.92 RsRGB

0.0

1.0

R8Bit = round[255 R´sRGB]

slide8

chromaticity diagram

and sRGB

550

500

typical location of

primaries of

LCD-displays

600

slide9

RGB-Cube and optimal color space

550

500

600

planes of constant lightness spaced DEab = 10 units

slide10

RGB-Cube and optimal color space

550

500

600

planes of constant lightness spaced DEab = 10 units

slide11

X 0.4124 0.3576 0.1805 RscRGB

Y = 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 GscRGB

Z 0.0193 0.1192 0.9505 BscRGB

red

green

blue

Scene-oriented and extended RGB colour space

IEC 61966-2-2

XYZ

matrix(3x3)

RGBscRGB

linear transformation

digitization 16 Bits

RGBscRGB(16)

linear relation between XYZ und sRGB:

Primaries according to chromaticities ITU-R BT.709.3

slide12

65535

the range from -0.5 to 1.5 covers the

whole space of visible surface colors

(optimal color space)

RscRGB(16)

16384

12288

8192

range brighter than the white point

127

4096

4096

0

~7.5

RscRGB(16) = round[8192 RscRGB]+4096

RscRGB

1.5

1.0

0.0

0

1.0

RscRGB -->

~ - 0.5

slide13

Optional RGB Colour Space

IEC 61966-2-5

Linear transformation

XYZ

matrix(3x3)

RGBsRGB

slide14

chromaticity diagram

and sRGB

550

wide gamut colour space!

500

600

slide15

X 0.5767 0.1856 0.1882 RsRGB

Y = 0.2973 0.6274 0.0753 GsRGB

Z 0.0270 0.0707 0.9913 BsRGB

red

green

blue

Optional RGB Colour Space

IEC 61966-2-5

Linear transformation

XYZ

matrix(3x3)

RGBsRGB

nonlinear distortion

RGB´sRGB

digitization

RGB8Bit

linear relation between XYZ und sRGB:

Primaries according to CIE 122:1996 chromaticities

slide16

R´opRGB

RopRGB(8)

255

1.0

0

0.0

Nonlinear distortion:

1.0

-> RopRGB

0.0

1.0

R8Bit = round[255 R´sRGB]

RopRGB(N) = round[(2N-1) R´opRGB]

R´opRGB = RopRGB(1/2.2)

slide17

Y´sYCC 0.2990 0.5870 0.1140 R´sRGB

Cb´sYCC = -0.1687 -0.3312 0.5000 G´sRGB

Cr´sYCC 0.5000 -0.4187 -0.0813 B´sRGB

Luma-Chroma Color Space sYCC

IEC 61966-2-1 Appendix

XYZ

matrix(3x3)

RGBsRGB

linear transformation

nonlinear distortion

(extended gamut)

RGB´sRGB

matrix(3x3)

linear transformation

YCC´sYCC

digitization 8 Bit

YCCsYCC(8)

transformation from sRGB´ into sYCC´components:

slide18

R´sRGB

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

extended nonlinear distortion:

RsRGB > 0.0031308

R´sRGB = 1.055 RsRGB(1/2.4) - 0.055

-0.0031308 <= RsRGB >= 0.0031308

R´sRGB = 12.92 RsRGB

RsRGB < -0.0031308

R´sRGB = -1.055 RsRGB(1/2.4) + 0.055

1.0

-> RsRGB

0.0

1.0

slide19

YsYCC(8)

255

- digital values below 0 and above 255 are clipped

0

digitization of sYCC´ components:

YsYCC(8) = round[255 Y´sYCC]

  • the color space covered by sYCC
  • is larger than that of sRGB
  • but smaller than the optimal color space!

CbsYCC(8) = round[255 Cb´sYCC] + 128

CrsYCC(8) = round[255 Cr´sYCC] + 128

slide20

Extended gamut YCC colour space xvYCC

IEC 61966-2-4

XYZ

matrix(3x3)

RGB

linear transformation

nonlinear distortion

(extended gamut)

RGB´

linear transformation

matrix(3x3)

matrix(3x3)

YCC´601

YCC´709

ITU-R BT.601

4:3 and 16:9 TV

ITU-R BT.709

HDTV

YCCxyYCC(8)

YCCxyYCC(8)

digitization 8 Bit

slide21

1.086

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-0.758

extended nonlinear distortion:

RsRGB > 0.081

R´ = 1.099 R0.45 - 0.099

-0.081 <= R>= 0.081

R´ = 4.5 R

RsRGB < -0.081

R´ = -1.099(-R)0.45 + 0.099

1.0

-> R

0.0

1.0

slide22

Y´601 0.2990 0.5870 0.1140 R´

Cb´601 = -0.1687 -0.3312 0.5000 G´

Cr´601 0.5000 -0.4187 -0.0813 B´

Y´709 0.2126 0.7152 0.0722 R´

Cb´709 = -0.1146 -0.3854 0.5000 G´

Cr´709 0.5000 -0.4542 -0.0458 B´

Transformation from RGB´ to xvYCC´ components

transformation according to R BT.601

transformation according to R BT.709

slide23

- the complete optimal color space is covered

digitization of YCC´ components:

YxyYCC(8)

255

white point

235

YxyYCC(8) = round[219 Y´nnn + 16]

16

black

  • higher quantization in 10 Bits or 16 Bits

is defined as well

0

CbxvYCC(8) = round[224 Cb´sYCC] + 128

CrxvYCC(8) = round[224 Cr´sYCC] + 128

slide24

If you like to experience the standards of the default RGB and YCC colour spaces,

look to your TV and DVD

multimedia home equipment !

Details of the standards are available from the publications of IEC

Thank you for listening !