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Qualification of military flight simulators The Dutch approach Hans Jansen National Aerospace Laboratory NLR Herman Koolstra Military Aviation Authority MAA-NLD. Vancouver 8 October 2008. Chinook in brown out conditions. A Chinook in a brown out condition Very common in Uruzghan

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Qualification of military flight simulatorsThe Dutch approachHans Jansen National Aerospace Laboratory NLRHerman Koolstra Military Aviation Authority MAA-NLD

Vancouver 8 October 2008


A Chinook in a brown out condition

    • Very common in Uruzghan
    • Hard to train at home
    • Limited resources for training
  • Can it be trained in a simulator?
  • Can it be trained completely in a simulator?
  • What kind of simulator to prevent…..
military aviation authority nld
Military Aviation Authority -NLD
  • Why a Military Aviation Authority?
    • Separate inspection and execution
  • Tasks
      • Develop standards
      • Certification
      • Inspection (audits)
  • Our task:
    • Make standards for all Military Flight Simulators
objective maximize training value
Objective: maximize training value
  • To reach the objective two fundamental problems must be investigated.
  • 1. What is the level of simulation required for a task to train that particular task completely in an FSTD?
  • 2. What is the minimum acceptable level (no negative training) and how much training can be done on that particular simulator.
jar flight simulator training devices fstd
JAR Flight Simulator Training Devices (FSTD)
  • Full Flight Simulator (FFS)
    • level A B,C D
  • Flight Training Device (FTD)
    • level 1,2,3
  • Flight & Navigation Procedures Trainer (FNPT)
    • level I, II, III,MCC
  • Basic Instrument Training Device (BITD)

A Full Flight Simulator level D is the FSTD with the highest fidelity level, and the Basic Instrument Training Device has the lowest level, but sufficient for instrument training.

limitations of the jar fstd
Limitations of the JAR-FSTD
  • Requirements not clearly coupled to flying tasks
  • Rigid qualification
    • lowest subsystem determines qualification of the simulator
  • Training credits not always indicated
  • No military tasks
proposed solution
Proposed solution
  • Task oriented
  • Sub system oriented

- Human perception or

technology driven?

subsystem oriented
Subsystem oriented


Instructor/operator station

Visual system (image, FOV)

Motion system (envelope, phase)

Sound system


Performance & Control

Aircraft subsystems



ATC / C2

Threats & targets

cooperative models

Integration & Correlation

basis for standards 1
Basis for standards (1)
  • What is required for full 100% compatibility
  • Human limitations
    • Forward compatibility
    • Independent of present day technology
basis for standards 2
Basis for standards(2)
  • What is the required minimum standard to do any training at all?
  • JAR
  • Little evidence
euclid 11 1 master
Euclid 11.1 MASTER

Errors in aerobatic training depending on previous PC training

training value
Training value
  • How much training value?
    • first conservative allowance
    • adjusted, based on experience
task list a piece
Task list ( a piece)
  • Rating tasks.
    • Checklist
    • Expertise
    • Confirmation in a FSTD, main reason for subjective tests as well.
checklist example
Checklist example
  • Task qualification checklist ( for 100%):
  • Motion:
    • Is the task high gain or are motion inputs primary triggers: Minimum level 1
    • Is the movement also multi axis: minimum level 2.
    • Does the task require aircraft vibration cues: minimum level is 3.
    • If level 2 or 3 motion is required phase difference should be less than 60 degrees during typical task execution. Phase difference of less than 30 degrees is required for 100% flight replacement.
operators benefits
Operators benefits
  • Each FSTD can be used.
  • The training per FSTD can be optimized.
  • Flight training can be optimized.
way ahead
Way ahead
  • Initial step is completed
    • FSTD-H
  • Second step
    • qualification
  • Third step
    • fixed wing.
  • Continuing effort
    • Improve the system
    • Biggest challenge the minimum level