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Chocolate. "What use are cartridges in battle? I always carry chocolate instead .“ -George Bernard Shaw. A. History of Trade and Economic Impact. Chocolate originates with the Maya in the tropical rainforests of (present-day) Mexico and Central America.

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  1. Chocolate "What use are cartridges in battle? I always carry chocolate instead.“ -George Bernard Shaw

  2. A. History of Trade and Economic Impact • Chocolate originates with the Maya in the tropical rainforests of (present-day) Mexico and Central America. • It became part of Maya culture around 300CE, but new, unconfirmed research estimates chocolate originated as far back as 1400BCE.

  3. The Aztec • Chocolate was adopted by the Aztecs during their conquest of much of Mesoamerica and was used in much the same way – to make a frothy, hot drink. • The Aztec demanded tribute of surrounding Mayan cities and other small tribes in cocoa beans.

  4. Chocolate = $ • For the Maya and the Aztec, by 1000CE the cocoa pod was the tender of the realm and was used instead of coinage or other forms of bartering in most instances. • The cocoa pod was the most valuable product of the area, including all other spices.

  5. First Europeans • 1502 – Christopher Columbus tastes chocolate on his fourth voyage and takes a few beans back with him. • 1519 – HernánCortéz discovers the value of cocoa for the first time and establishes a plantation in Aztec lands using Aztec laborers. • 1528 – Cortéz takes beans back to Spain where they become an expensive luxury item with a secret formula known to few. • 1585 – The first commercial cocoa beans are shipped from South and Central America to Spain.

  6. Spread from Spain • 1615 – Anne of Austria takes the custom of chocolate drinking to France • 1657 – The first English chocolate house is opened by a Frenchma, only the rich can afford it at 6-8 shillings a pound. • 1663 – Pralines are created by a cook in Genensburg, Germany.

  7. Spread and Industrialization • 1720 – Chocolate finds its way to Italy and is served in shops in Florence and Venice. • 1732 – Dubuisson, a French inventor, creates a chocolate grinding table that is heated. • 1764 – Chocolate is first made in the (present-day) United States by the Baker Chocolate Company. • 1780 – First chocolate is produced by machine in Barcelona. • 1795 – Steam power is used to make chocolate in England by J.S. Fry and Sons.

  8. Chocolate Explosion • 1819 – Cailler starts the first Swiss chocolate factory. • 1828 – Houten, a Dutch chocolatier, invents a hydraulic press that produces cocoa powder. • 1840 – Milk chocolate is invented in Switzerland. • 1847 – First chocolate bars created in England. • 1861 – Heart-shaped box created for Valentine’s Day. • 1879 – Lindt invents smooth chocolate, or fondant. • 1893 – Hershey begins chocolate manufacturing. • 1896 – Hirschfield makes the first Tootsie Roll.

  9. Chocolate today is a billion-dollar industry

  10. Today - Production • The six largest cocoa producing countries are the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria, Brazil, and Cameroon. • Cocoa constitutes the majority of export revenue for these countries, employing two million farmers in Ghana alone. • The Ivory Coast is largest producer, producing 43% of the world’s cocoa.

  11. Cocoa-producing countries are along the equator.

  12. Concentration of cocoa plantations in Mesoamerica

  13. Today - Manufacturing • The largest manufacturers of chocolate in the world today are Mars, Cadbury Schweppes, Nestlé, Ferrero, Hershey, and Kraft, in order of total sales (highest to lowest). • All of these brands are international, selling more than half of the total chocolate market worldwide. • It is sold in an infinite variety of forms, from bars and pellets to rolls and truffles to praline and even powders.

  14. B. Cultural Influence • As stated in the history section, the Maya used the cacao bean as currency. 10 beans would buy you a rabbit or a prostitute. 100 beans would buy you a slave. People even came up with a way to counterfeit beans - by carving them out of clay.

  15. Mayan Uses • The Maya also used chocolate in religious rituals; it sometimes took the place of blood. Chocolate was used in marriage ceremonies, where it was exchanged by the bride and groom, and in baptisms. They even had a cacao god. • The rich enjoyed drinking their chocolate from elaborately painted chocolate vessels. Emperors were buried with jars of chocolate at their side

  16. Aztec Uses • One Aztec chocolate history legend has it that the god Quetzalcoatl brought cacao to earth and was cast out of paradise for giving it to man. • The Aztec used Chocolate in ceremonies and to support the power of the rulers just as the Maya did, even using it as a common trade unit between Amerindian cultures.

  17. European Uses • When chocolate first made it to Europe, it was considered a health food and a medicine. Doctors prescribed it for curing fevers, cooling the body, aiding in digestion, and alleviating pain. The church also approved it as a nutritional supplement to take while fasting. • It was so popular that one bishop was poisoned for refusing to allow his parishioners to bring chocolate to mass.

  18. C. Chocolate- From harvest to end use • The largest known producers of about three fourths of the world's cocoa bean production takes place in West Africa. The most dense amount of cacao production is in Côte d'Ivoire.

  19. Types of Production • There are two different divisions in chocolate production • Chocolate Makers- These people first harvest the chocolate and then use it with other elements to form couverture chocolate (this contains extra cocoa butter). • Chocolatiers- They take the couverture to yield varieties of chocolate candies.

  20. The Most Dense Region of Cocoa Production

  21. Chocolate in the Market • Chocolate plays a major role in the market with various competitive chocolate owning companies such as The Hershey Company, Mars, Cadbury, Nestlé, Kraft Foods, and Lindt.

  22. Technological Advancements • Technological developments in chocolate production include storing methods (methods of controlling humidity and temperature) and improved conching methods (a conch is a surface scraping mixer and consistently distributes cocoa butter within chocolate).

  23. Global Chocolate Production over Time

  24. Uses of Chocolate • As an ingredient- The Aztecs first used it for a drink called hot chocolate. • Chocolate is most familiar as an ingredient in cakes, ice creams, cereals, yogurts, candies, and also as a syrup.

  25. More Uses of Chocolate In addition, it is used for intensifying mood altering chemicals phenylethylalanine (love) and anandamide (brain power). • Fighting Tooth Decay • Body Paint • Taxes/Currency • Spa Treatments • Increasing Intelligence • Perfumes • Cures Stomach Aches • Fighting fatigue • Culinary Ingredients • Medicinal Remedy • Flavoring

  26. D. Governmental Action • When Cortéz took Mexico in 1521, the Spanish soldiers demanded the Aztec cocoa as a spoil of war. • Not only did the Spanish claim the Aztec supply of cocoa (on threat of death to the Aztec nobles), but they also demanded it from the nations that the Aztec had previously taken tribute from.

  27. Responding to Demand • Almost immediately after Cortéz got back to Spain with his cargo of chocolate, demand for the expensive drink skyrocketed among royalty. • In order to profit from the new trade good, Phillip II orders new plantations to be erected in Mesoamerica. • These plantations are staffed by Amerindian slaves. Smallpox became endemic at this time.

  28. Europe Catches On • Historians are unsure as to why, but the secret of chocolate did not leak out of Spain for almost 100 years, but in the early 1600s, the French and the Dutch set up cocoa-producing colonies. • The British planted in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). • The Dutch established plantations in Venezuela, Sumatra, and Java. • The French remained in the West Indies.

  29. Slavery Expands • As Europe approached the industrial revolution and the craze for chocolate was peaking, the labor force in the East Indies became insufficient to meet European demand. • This is when the first African slaves are ordered to be brought to the plantations and the triangular trade began.

  30. Industrialization • By around 1750, hydraulic machines did the work of thousands of laborers, easily keeping up with European demand. • Slavery was officially abolished in all countries by 1888, but plantations in the Caribbean still had (and have) horrible working conditions and low pay for the thousands of workers needed to stock the factories.

  31. Recent Events • Raw cocoa bean prices have not gone down significantly since well before the industrial revolution since the beans are still harvested by hand. • In order to maintain low prices, most mainstream chocolatiers use about 5-10% cocoa and substitute refined sugar. • Today “bean-to-bar” chocolate producers own the largest market share, but companies like Barry Callebaut take on a large share of the industry selling to businesses that do not feature chocolate as a primary product.

  32. Credits • Part A – Austin • Part B – Mahnvee • Part C – Brandon • Part D - All

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