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Chocolate. Origins of Theobroma cacao (and T. bicolor ) Probably Mesoamerican origins Possibly as old as Olmec (mother culture for Mesoamerica) ~ 4,000 BP Ancient Maya (or Mixe-Zoquean) ka-ka-wa or Chocolate in Nahuatl (Aztec) = cacahuatl (cacao water) or xocoatle (bitter water)

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chocolate
Chocolate
  • Origins of Theobroma cacao (and T. bicolor)
    • Probably Mesoamerican origins
    • Possibly as old as Olmec (mother culture for Mesoamerica) ~ 4,000 BP
    • Ancient Maya (or Mixe-Zoquean) ka-ka-wa or
    • Chocolate in Nahuatl (Aztec) = cacahuatl (cacao water) or xocoatle (bitter water)
    • Cacao (from the ancient Mayan ka-ka-wa)
  • Amerindians drank frothy concoction with vanilla and chiles
chocolate1
Chocolate
  • Don’t confuse cacao (the plant) with
    • Erythroxylum coca (source of cocaine) or
    • Cola nitida (African nut flavor in Coke) or
    • Cocos nucifera (coconut)
  • Ecology & growth
    • Lowland wet tropics or irrigated
  • History & Culture
    • Tribute - Soconusco
    • Currency
chocolate2
Chocolate
  • Trade – globalization
  • Americas to Spain in mid 1500s
  • Most of Europe by late 1600s – 1700s
  • Dutch grew in Indonesia
  • French grew in Haiti
  • To US in 1780 when an MD (Dr. Baker) and an Irish chocolate maker formed a company (Baker’s chocolate – still around now owned by Kraft)
  • Mole
slide10

Spanish

molinillos

slide13

Ingredients:

4 CHILES MULATOS

4 CHILES ANCHOS

4 CHILES GUAJILLOS

4 CHILES PASILLAS

1 CAN WHOLE TOMATOES

1 LARGE ONION

4 GARLIC CLOVES

1/2 C. ALMONDS

1 RIPE PLANTAIN (or "PLATANO" OR "COOKING BANANA")

1/2 C. PEANUTS

1 PIECE TOASTED BREAD

2 CORN TORTILLAS

1 TABLET "ABUELITA" CHOCOLATE

1/8 C. SESAME SEEDS

OIL OR LARD FOR FRYING CHOCOLATE, CHICKEN-TURKEY

1 tsp salt

4 each, dried chiles: mulato, dried pasilla, dried ancho,

2 cups hot chicken stock

1 cup blanched almonds (some substitute 1/2 cup peanut butter)

3 large tomatoes, peeled seeded and chopped (or you may use a combination of tomatoes and tomatillos)

1 onion chopped

1/2 cup raisins

1 dried tortilla, broken up

2 cloves garlic, minced

Spices: 4 cloves (or 1/8 tsp ground cloves),

10 peppercorns (or 1/4 tsp ground pepper),

1/2 inch stick cinnamon (or 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon), 1/2 tsp coriander seeds (or 1/4 tsp ground coriander), 1/2 tsp anise seed (or 1/4 tsp ground anise)

3 Tbs bacon fat

1 1/2 oz unsweetended chocolate (1 1/2 squares)

2 Tbs sesame seeds

© Bob Nemo – the Mole page

chocolate processing development
Chocolate Processing & development
  • Initial processing => fermentation, drying, toasting, grinding etc.
  • Brits add milk in 1727 => modern hot chocolate
    • Quaker families (Fry, Cadbury, Rowntree) in late 1700s
      • Form paternalistic (company town) communities for workers
  • Dutch (van Houten) invent process to make cocoa powder (remove cocoa butter)
  • Fry in 1849 => process to make candy bar type chocolate (add extra cocoa butter)
  • Swiss improve processing (Suchard, Lindt, Tobler etc.)
  • Hershey (a Pennsylvania Mennonite) quits carmel business to make chocolate in 1890s
    • Like Quakers builds factory town
chocolate3
Chocolate
  • Economics
    • Most “ordinary” cacao grown in W Africa (Ivory Coast ~ 40%); Ghana and Indonesia major producers
    • Recent conflicts => doubling of price of beans from $900/ton to $2300/ton
  • Brits eat > 17 lb/yr; USA ~ 12 lbs
  • Now organic and “fair trade” chocolate is available
nutrition
Nutrition
  • Chocolate cravings are real!
  • Americans ate nearly 12 pounds of chocolate apiece in 1997
  • 49 percent of all cravings are chocolate-related; chocolate is the single-most commonly craved food in the United States, especially among women.
  • Chocolate has similarities to some popular illegal drugs and can, in some cases, reduce depression and create a sense of extreme sensitivity or euphoria.
    • It contains a compound called phenylthylamine, which resembles "ecstasy,"
    • Also "cannabinoid" fatty acids such as those in marijuana.
    • Stimulants, such as caffeine, are present in chocolate, too.
nutrition ii
Nutrition II
  • Antioxidants called phenols in chocolate probably are heart-healthy.
    • Prevent the oxidation of so-called "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoproteins--LDL) thus may safeguard against heart attack and stroke
    • Also increases HDL cholesterol—the good cholesterol
    • Demonstrated to counteract mild hypertension
    • Also protects blood vessels, promotes cardiac health, and prevents cancer!
nutrition ii1
Nutrition II
  • Chocolate contains a very high level of antioxidants, ranking with the top fruits and vegetables for antioxidant content
  • The quality (& quantity) of the antioxidants in chocolate are very high relative to other common foods and beverages such as black tea, red wine, raisins, strawberries, pinto beans, and other plant products.
  • Dark chocolate has more flavonoids than any other antioxidant-rich food including red wine, green and black tea, and …
nutrition iii
Top Antioxidant Foods

ORAC* Units per 100 grams

Dark Chocolate 13,120

Milk Chocolate 6,740

Prunes 5,770

Raisins 2,830

Blueberries 2,400

Blackberries 2,036

Kale 1,770

Strawberries 1,540

Spinach 1,260

Raspberries 1,220

Brussel Sprouts 980

Plums 949

Alfalfa Sprouts 930

Broccoli Florets 890

Oranges 750

Red Grapes 739

Red Bell Pepper 710

Cherries 670

Onion 450

Corn 400

Eggplant 390

Nutrition III
nutrition iv
Nutrition IV
  • In sufficient amounts, the theobromine found in chocolate is toxic to animals such as horses, dogs, parrots, voles, cats (kittens especially), birds and other small animals because they are unable to metabolize the chemical effectively
  • Chocolate is a very potent stimulant for dogs and horses; its use is therefore banned in horse-racing.
vanilla
Vanilla
  • Vanilla planifolia – a member of the orchard family
  • Ecology of growth
  • History