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ATP is - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ATP is

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  1. ATPis Cell Energy

  2. Why do Cells need Energy? • ATP powers most of the energy-consuming activities of cells, such as: Synthesis reactions. Examples: • joining transfer RNAs to amino acids for assembly into proteins • synthesis of all macromolecules • -photosynthesis • Active transport like sodium potassium pumps and endo and exocytosis • Cell reproduction

  3. Why do Cells need Energy? • nerve impulses • adding phosphate groups (phosphorylation) to many different proteins,to alter their activity in cell signaling. • muscle contraction • beating of cilia and flagella (including sperm)

  4. Using Cell Energy • When the third phosphate group of ATP is removed by hydrolysis, free energy is released. ATP + H2O → ADP + Pi + energy • ADP is adenosine diphosphate. • Pi is inorganic phosphate

  5. Making Cell Energy ADP + Pi + energy→ ATP + H2O • requires energy • Energy comes from chemical bonds in food or from photosynthesis • occurs in the cytosol by glycolysis • occurs in mitochondria by aerobic cellular respiration

  6. ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery Recharging the Cell Battery

  7. Have your Cell Energy and Eat it, too! LAB

  8. Materials • 1 large marshmallow =ribose • 1 gummy bear= adenine • 3 small white marshmallows = inorganic phosphate groups • 3 regular toothpicks= covalent bonds • 1 colored toothpick= high energy bond

  9. Procedure • Place 2 toothpicks on opposites sides of your RIBOSE • Connect one side with your adenine • One the other side, connect one phosphate • You now have AMP-> adenosine monophosphate

  10. Procedure 2 • Add 1 toothpick to other side of phosphate • You now have ADPadenosinediphosphate • Add 1 toothpick to other side of phosphate • Add the colored toothpick to other side of the 2nd phosphate • You now have ATP-> adenosine triphosphate

  11. Procedure 3 • The colored toothpick represents the high energy bond between the two end phosphates that the important source of energy in ATP

  12. ANALYSIS • Why is one toothpick a different color? • Write out the reaction showing ATP being used • Write out the reaction showing ATP being recharged • List at least 3 ways ATP can be used in cells • How do you make/recharge ATP?

  13. Eat your ATP to make some more!