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Creating School Environments to Prevent Problem Behaviour and Support Students At-Risk and Those with Disabilities through School-wide Positive Behaviour Support. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports pbis.org. Context.

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slide1

Creating School Environments to Prevent Problem Behaviour and Support Students At-Risk and Those with Disabilities through School-wide Positive Behaviour Support

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

OSEP Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

pbis.org

context

Context

The School Environment Must Support Appropriate Social & Academic Behavior

School-Wide Positive

Behavior Support

Response to Intervention

the challenge
The Challenge
  • Students with the most challenging academic and social problems need pro-active comprehensive and consistent systems of support
  • School-wide discipline systems are typically unclear and inconsistently implemented – absence of a “social behavior curriculum”
  • Educators often lack specialized skills to address severe problem behavior and learning challenges
  • Pressure on schools to incorporate national and state initiatives such as Values Education, Anti-Bullying,Safe Schools andachieving “adequate yearly progress.” Many often have clearly defined outcomes without structures to reach or a framework for deciding what should be implemented when, for whom, and to what degree
the danger
The Danger….

“Punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)

the good news
The Good News…

Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are (Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998;Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994):

Social Skills Training

Academic Restructuring

Behavioral Interventions

toward a solution
Toward a Solution

The answer is not the invention of new solutions, but the enhancement of the school’s organizational capacity to:

  • Accurately adopt and efficiently sustain their use of research-validated practices
  • Provide a Seamless continuum of behavioral and academic support for all students
  • Be part of a district wide system of behavior and academic support
  • Increased focus, teacher training, community training, and funding for early intervention
school wide positive behavioral support
School-wide Positive Behavioral Support

Incorporate best practice in professional development and system change (teams)

Emphasizes the use of assessment information to guide intervention and management decisions

Focus on the use of a continuum of behavioral supports

Focus on increasing the contextual fit between problem context and what we know works

Focus on establishing school environments that support long term success of effective practices {3-5 years}

school wide positive behavior support
School-wide Positive Behavior Support

SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior

OSEP Center on PBIS

slide10

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students

slide11

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

universal strategies school wide
Universal Strategies: School-Wide

Essential Features

  • Statement of purpose
  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)
  • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors
  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors
  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors
  • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making (swis.org)
  • Family Awareness and Involvement
universal strategies nonclassroom settings
Universal Strategies: Nonclassroom Settings
  • Identify Setting Specific Behaviors
  • Develop Teaching Strategies
  • Develop Practice Opportunities and Consequences
  • Assess the Physical Characteristics
  • Establish Setting Routines
  • Identify Needed Support Structures
  • Data collection strategies
universal strategies classroom
Universal Strategies:Classroom
  • Use of school-wide expectations/rules
  • Effective Classroom Management
    • Behavior management
    • Instructional management
    • Environmental management
  • Support for teachers who deal with students who display high rates of problem behavior
importance of effective instruction sanders 1999
Importance of Effective Instruction(Sanders, 1999)

The single biggest factor affecting academic growth of any population of youngsters is the effectiveness of classroom instruction.

The answer to why children learn well or not isn't race, it isn't poverty, it isn't even per-pupil expenditure at the elementary level.

The classroom’s effect on academic growth dwarfs and nearly renders trivial all these other factors that people have historically worried about.

why must schools build strong universal systems of support

Why must schools build strong universal systems of support?

Why is Special Education focused on school-wide systems?

because
Because…
  • We can’t “make” students learn or behave
  • We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave
  • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity
risk and protective factor comparison
Risk and Protective Factor Comparison

t = -2.17 (37) p < .036

t = 2.31 (37) p < .026

Partial

N=21

Full

N=18

Partial

N=21

Full

N=18

small group and individual interventions

Small Group and Individual Interventions

Supporting Students At-Risk and those with Disabilities

important themes
Important Themes
  • Part of a continuum – must link to school-wide PBS system
  • Efficient and effective way to identify students
  • Assessment = simple sort
  • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized
assessment
Assessment

Focus is on sorting student for service, not “diagnosis and placement.”

  • Social-Behavioral Concerns
    • Social skills
    • Self-management
  • Academic Concerns
    • Peer Tutors
    • Check in
    • Homework club
  • Emotional Concerns
    • Adult mentors
individual support plans
Individual Support Plans
  • When small group not sufficient
  • When problem intense and chronic
  • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Linked to school-wide system
fba pbs plan process
FBA – PBS Plan Process

Success requires:

  • Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS
  • Fluency with a clear process among all staff including their role
  • A basic understanding of Applied Behavior Analysis =Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment
essential steps to individual pbs plans
Essential Steps to Individual PBS Plans
  • Request for assistance
  • Operationally define problem/replacement behavior
  • Background/archival data/ data collection/Environmental Assessment
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment

Indirect measures

Direct observation

  • Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem behavior
  • Develop a PBS plan

Social skill instruction

Self management

Environmental modifications

  • Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress
designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

universal supports core instruction
Consistent “core” curriculum implemented school-wide (research-based)

Core instruction follows effective instructional practices (NWREL.org)

Core instruction implemented with fidelity

Consistent, prioritized, and protected time allocated to instruction

Data decision rules to identify a) those at high risk and b) “non-responders” in a timely manner

Universal Supports: Core Instruction
important themes1
Important Themes
  • Part of a continuum – must link to core curriculum
  • Efficient and effective way to identify students (Curriculum Based Measures; DIBELS) through FREQUENT monitoring
  • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized
targeted supports
Intensify Instruction

Increase academic engaged time

Small group / one:one

Increased opportunities to respond

Supplemental curriculum

Alter Instructional Environment

Rules & routines

Attention signal

Ratio of positive / negative statements

Efficient transitions

Active supervision

Targeted Supports
individual
Individual
  • When small group/targeted not sufficient
  • When data indicate high risk*
  • Linked to core curriculum / outcomes

*limited data beyond literacy

individual intensive1
Individual/ Intensive
  • Targeted assessment (Curriculum Based Measures; DIBELS)
  • Instruction targets remediation and/or accommodation
  • Environment provides multiple and sustained engagement opportunities
  • Monitor outcomes and make necessary adjustments (progress monitoring)