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Fool Proof Strategies for Marketing Pollution Prevention to Business: Applying Four Ps to P2. October 15, 2003 Thomas E. (Ted) Boyce, Ph.D. Center for Behavioral Safety, LLC Reno, NV Phone: 775.232.3099 E-mail: Basics of Social Marketing: The Bottom Line.

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fool proof strategies for marketing pollution prevention to business applying four ps to p2

Fool Proof Strategies for Marketing Pollution Prevention to Business:Applying Four Ps to P2

October 15, 2003

Thomas E. (Ted) Boyce, Ph.D.

Center for Behavioral Safety, LLC

Reno, NV

Phone: 775.232.3099


basics of social marketing the bottom line
Basics of Social Marketing:The Bottom Line
  • Social marketing is used to influence the behavior of a target audience
    • To achieve a social objective
    • To adopt a product or plan
  • Social marketing is NOT just advertising and training
  • A change in the behavior of people is critical
    • Behavior is influenced by its outcomes
    • We understand this through the ABC model
  • Social Marketing requires an understanding of the 4 Ps
    • Product, Price, Place, and Promotion

Less of . . . . .

More of . . . . .

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

• ________

Mission/Vision: Desired Behavioral Changes

scoping 15 words flip chart helps you begin with the end in mind







Scoping: 15 Words Flip Chart Helps You Begin with the End in Mind

Each team member is given a flip chart page and marker. They must write, in 15 words or less, the project definition. Post all and check for agreement. Double check all fuzzy words by circling them and asking "What does it look like?" or "How will we know it when we have it?".

an effective environmental management system has four characteristics
An Effective Environmental Management System Has Four Characteristics.
  • Environmental protection is held as a VALUE by all employees.
  • Each individual feels a sense of responsibility for his/her work environment and helping others to protect the environment.
  • Each individual is willing and able to work on behalf of the environment.
  • Each individual routinely performs behaviors that protect the environment for the benefit of themselves and others.
effective culture change requires continual attention to three areas





Management systems












Following procedures

Cleaning-up spills Sweeping floors Coaching peers

Effective Culture Change Requires Continual Attention to Three Areas.
by focusing on behaviors we identify areas for improvement before incidents occur
By Focusing on Behaviors, We Identify Areas for Improvement Before Incidents Occur.


Serious Incident

Minor Incident

Near Miss

At-Risk Behavior

active involvement of employees is critical to achieving an effective ems
Active Involvement of Employees is Critical to Achieving an Effective EMS.
  • Employees can learn when and where theat-risk behaviors occur.
  • Employees can learn about unsafe conditions.
  • Employees know more about peers’ attitudes which may impact environmental protection.
  • Employees are in the best position to use the behavior-change tools on a day-to-day basis.
  • Understanding the principles and designing the tools provides a “voice” and fosters ownership of the process.
  • Employees have a lot to gain from environmental protection improvements.
achieving an effective ems will require shifting our focus



Failure Oriented

Achievement Oriented

Outcome Based

Process Based

Management Driven

Employee Driven

Government Regulations

Company/Employee Responsibility

Rugged Individualism


Piecemeal Approach

Systems Approach

Fault Finding

Fact Finding



Quick Fix

Continuous Improvement



Achieving an Effective EMS will Require Shifting Our Focus.
behavior occurs as a result of what comes before and after
Behavior Occurs as a Result of What Comes Before and After.




Doorbell rings

Answer door

A good friend

is at the door

(Behavior Increases)




Doorbell rings

Answer door

A sales person

is at the door

(Behavior Decreases)




Doorbell rings

Answer door

No one is there

(Behavior decreases after repeated occurrences)

some consequences lead to more behavior change than others
Some Consequences Lead to More Behavior Change Than Others.

The MOST effective consequences are:

• Certain (There’s a high probability you’ll receive the consequence.)

• Soon (The consequence occurs immediately after your behavior.)

• Sizable (The consequence is significant or meaningful to you.)Risky Behavior: not cleaning-up spill


comfort vs. environmental incident

environmental protection is a continuous fight with human nature
Environmental Protection is a Continuous Fight with Human Nature.
  • At-risk behaviors are often more comfortable, convenient, and time-efficient than safe behaviors
    • Immediate, certain, and sizable consequences.
  • At-risk behaviors rarely result in the sort of consequences (e.g., illness, discipline) sufficient to discourage their occurrence
    • Uncertain, sometimes delayed, may not be sizable relative to other available consequences
  • Initial awareness and carefulness is often transient because of a natural learning process (i.e., drift)
    • Natural consequences for at-risk behavior make it more likely over time
people do what you do
People Do What You Do.

Setting Examples

by Forest H. Kirkpatrick

The eye’s a better teacher and more willing than the ear;

Fine counsel is confusing, but example’s always clear;

And the best of all the preachers are the one’s who live their creeds.

For to see the good in action is what everybody needs.

I can soon learn how to do it if you’ll let me see it done;

I can watch your hands in action, but your tongue too fast may run;

And the lectures you deliver may be very wise and true.

But I’d rather get my lesson by watching what you do.

For I may not understand you and the high advice you give.

There’s no misunderstanding how you act and how you live.

the data may be examined in different ways
The Data May Be Examined In Different Ways.

Before BBS Program

After BBS Program

BBS Program rolled out in May 2001

the data may be examined in different ways1
The Data May Be Examined In Different Ways.

Before BBS Program

After BBS Program

BBS Program rolled out in May 2001

Goal: 90% safe for 3 consecutive months

Incentive: Celebration

threat vs opportunity matrix assessing a silent p politics





Threat vs. Opportunity Matrix(Assessing a Silent P--Politics)
at risk behaviors are not necessarily the result of deliberate acts

Safe Habit


Knowingly Safe


Knowingly At-Risk


Unknowingly At-Risk

At-Risk Behaviors Are Not Necessarily the Result of Deliberate Acts.
activators and consequences are used in interventions to influence behavior
Activators and Consequences are Used in Interventions to Influence Behavior.
  • Use Activators when employees:
    • Don’t fully understand the appropriate behavior.
    • Need to be reminded of the appropriate behavior.
  • Use Consequences when existing consequences:
    • Reward the at-risk behavior.
    • Prevent the environmental protective behavior.
  • Use Both
    • Most effective interventions are a combination of activators and consequences.
effective activators follow these six principles
Effective Activators Follow These Six Principles.
  • Specify behavior Be specific about the behaviors you are requesting.
  • Vary the messageLook for different ways to keep the message fresh.
  • Vary the methodLook for different ways to deliver the message.
  • Involve the participantsInvolvement leads to ownership and commitment.
  • Activate close to response opportunityGive reminders near the opportunity to perform the requested behavior.
  • Implicate consequencesMake sure people realize the consequences that are available to them if they perform according to the request.
interventions often introduce extra consequences

Natural Consequence







  • Time consuming
  • More difficult


  • Ignore
  • Praise
  • Rewarding feedback
  • Recognition

At-risk Behavior

  • Time saving
  • Easy
  • Comfortable

(injury rare)

  • Reprimand
  • Penalize
  • Correcting or constructing feedback
Interventions Often IntroduceExtra Consequences.
feedback is a powerful consequence to motivate behavior
Feedback is a Powerful Consequence to Motivate Behavior.
  • Rewarding feedback increases desired behavior; correcting feedback decreases undesired behavior.
  • Feedback provides knowledge of results.
  • Feedback provides social support.
    • Peer support and acceptance
    • Manager/supervisor approval
  • Behavior-focused feedback can occur formally and informally.
    • Formally: behavioral observation & feedback process, accountability reviews, performance evaluations
    • Informally: one-on-one or group feedback

"Elevator Speech”

Communication of clear purpose

helps overcome resistance

  • Imagine a chance meeting of a CAP team member and a key stakeholder in an empty elevator with 90 seconds to ride.
  • 2. Describe the need for change and the vision of the new state, as one might respond to the question, "Why are we doing this project?"
  • Team members practice this "speech" so they can convey a uniform message to others.
  • Used For:
  • Meaningful Helping team members practice framing the need
  • Articulating the vision in a clear, simple and way
  • Tactics & Tools Include:
  • What is our project about?
  • Why do we need to change?
  • What does success look like?
  • What do I need from you?

Communicating the Vision

















VP Memo






Communication Planning Matrix

3 w form what who when
3-W Form (What, Who, When)


on site seminar offer
On-Site Seminar Offer

Your attendance at this presentation entitles

you to:

  • One free on-site introductory seminar*


  • 1/2 off on-site consultation and workshop*

*Participant will be responsible for travel expenses plus materials.

To set-up your on-site visit and consultation, contact Dr. Boyce at 775.232.3099


Please mention your attendance at this WRPPN session.