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Alexander of Macedon

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  1. Alexander of Macedon

  2. Ancient Macedon(ia) unstable & relatively insignificant kingdom before 4th century weak ties to Greek world not considered completely Greek by southern Greeks "Medizers" during Persian Invasion (sided with Persia)

  3. Macedonian Society distinctive culture – fringe of the Greek world dialect, tumulus burials, unmixed wine, royal polygamy powerful monarchy: personal allegiance (treaties, etc.) warrior aristocracy loyal to king (not state, laws etc.) increasing role in Greek politics export of grain to Athens & potential to control N. Aegean grain century of inter-Greek war creates opportunities problem: internal strife nearly destroys Macedon in early 4th C

  4. Philip II of Macedon (ca. 382-36 BCE): early years son of Amyntas III and Illyrian Eurydice sent as hostage to Epaminondas in Thebes (369-367 BCE) learns innovative military tactics from Ep. takes power in 359 after death of brotherPerdiccas in civil wars consolidates power against pretenders; defeats external enemies in region by 357

  5. Philip II of Macedon: reforms goal: stabilize the archaic Macedonian government & army influence of Epaminondas military reforms Development of siege engines (catapults) Macedonian phalanx: longer spears (sarissa – 18feet) Light armed infantry and cavalry (scouts, speed) Recognition of common soldiers (“foot companions”)

  6. Philip II of Macedon military reforms Recognition of common soldiers (“foot companions”) Expands ranks of warrior aristocracy (devastated by civil wars) Institution of Royal Pages (children of nobles, serve king) Rewards for nobles increase loyalty Battle of the Crocus Field – Gains Thessaly (cavalry; double force size) h

  7. Philip II vs. Athens Athens: major Greek power in early 4th C 357: Athenian Ally Amphipolis taken by Philip (effective siege warfare) Athenians fail to unite Greece against Philip Demosthenes: Athenian orator opposes Philip

  8. Philip II vs. Athens Athens: major Greek power in early 4th C Demosthenes: Athenian orator opposes Philip alliance with Olynthos, destroyed by Philip II in 348 Peace of Philocrates(346) attempt to prevent war between Athens/Macedonia Athens accepts Philip’s power in NE Demosthenes helps negotiate, then seeks to undo aftermath of Peace brief lull in hostilities while Philip consolidates power in north 4th Sacred War: Philip again uses Delphi as excuse to invade Athens fails to gain full coalition with other Greeks Demosthenes

  9. Battle of Chaironeia (338) coalition of Athens & Thebes faces Philip in Boeotia Resounding victory for Philip Theban Sacred Band annihilated 1000 Athenian hoplites killed, 2000 captured Philip's 18-yr-old son Alexander leads decisive cavalry charge

  10. Philip II after Chaironeia Philip’s plans for Greece harsh treatment of Thebes, leniency toward Athens Corinthian League: legitimizes Macedonian control of Greece rhetoric: Philip II will lead "free Greeks" in attack on Persia reality: foundation for Macedonian World Empire assassination of Philip II summer 336: killed by member of bodyguard conflicts within Macedonian aristocracy Olympias, mother of Alexander possibly responsible in response to Philip’s marriage to Macedonian noble tomb of Philip II

  11. Greece at the death of Philip II (336)

  12. Alexander III "the Great" of Macedon (356-323) early years born to Philip II and main wife Olympias tutored by Aristotle Boucephalus legend accession to throne at age 20 (336) consolidation of power (336-34) purge of Macedonian royal family immediate trip to Greece enforces pro-Macedonian regimes defeats northern "barbarians" returns to crush Greek revolt; Thebes destroyed

  13. Alexander the Great: invasion of Western Asia Alexander takes up Philip’s war against Persians; invades Asia brings retinue of scientists and historians Faces and defeats force of Persians at Battle of Granicus(334) Persians fail to turn Greeks against Alexander Alexander executes Greek mercenaries in Persian army Alexander sweeps through Ionia (tribute > "contributions") Unties ‘Gordian Knot’

  14. Alexander the Great: invasion of Western Asia leads army south along Mediterranean Battle of Issos (333) in NW tip of Mediterranean Persian army led by King Darius III Persian army soundly defeated royal family captured; king Darius III flees back east Family treated as his own (new king of Asia)

  15. Alexander the Great: eastern Mediterranean (332-1) Siege of Tyre – Phoenician city, Persian naval stronghold Siege lasts 8 months; city falls in August of 332 City razed to the ground, inhabitants sold into slavery Alexander continues south to Gaza Gaza besieged for 2 months, destroyed Path to Egypt opened

  16. Alexander the Great: eastern Mediterranean (332-1) destruction of Tyre & Gaza puts end to resistance; path to Egypt opened Alexander in Egypt Persian satrap surrenders without fight identifies himself with pharaohs, local gods (syncretism) called son of Zeus-Ammon by oracle at Siwa (effect on psychology) founds Egyptian Alexandria (later site on Library, Pharos Lighthouse) Alexander as pharaoh

  17. Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) seeks final confrontation with Persian king Darius III; rejects peace Battle of Guagamela (331): Persian defeat, Darius escapes east Greeks face war elephants for first time Alexander assumes title of Persian king

  18. Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) Alexander takes Western capitals of empire Babylon: sacrifices to local gods/restores temples Susa: local customs respected, treasury left intact

  19. Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) Destruction of Persepolis – conquest complete spiritual center of Persian Empire (major royal festivals) Main powerbase for Persian rule burned: revenge for Athens, symbolic of Persian loss of power, he was drunk Ecbatana in Media, last of capitals taken; all treasuries controlled Darius III

  20. Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) Death of Darius III (330) flees to Bactria (Afghanistan), killed & replaced by local satrap Bessus Alexander assumes role of avenging Darius III, portrays self as successor buries Darius with honors Bessus turned over to Alexander, executed Darius III

  21. Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (331-30) invasion of central Asia – most difficult part of expedition Bactria and Sogdiana(330-27): subdued with difficulty Appointed Greeks as satraps (provincial governors) Established military colonies throughout area to secure territory Tensions among Macedonian generals grows

  22. Alexander the Great: conquest of Asia (330-27) Orientalization marriage toSogdianRhoxane – first wife; unrest increases behaving like a Great King (dress, customs) proskynesis– first sign of open resistance to Alexander by Greeks Incorporation of Iranians to king’s inner circle personality problems paranoia – execution of Philotas, Parmenion alcoholism – murder of Cleitus the Black Alexander & Rhoxane

  23. Alexander the Great: invasion of India (327-25) Approach to India (Indus Valley), edge of known world Land of mystery, fantastic peoples and creatures goal: control the whole world Kashmir surrenders without opposition Battle of Hydaspes (326): defeats King Poros Reinstates Poros to his throne, adds territory

  24. Alexander the Great: invasion of India (327-25) Had enough: army refuses to go further east They campaign to mouth of Indus before returning westward return takes two years Macedonian satraps hang on in India only a few years Return by land through Gedrosian dessert, be sea thousands die on two month march

  25. Alexander's policies administration of Empire adopts the Persian model (Macedonian satraps, loyal locals) relations between Greeks and non-Greeks urges fusion between cultures (especially royal families) Mass marriage at Susa in 324 between Greek/Persian nobles Iranians incorporated into high ranks of army Greeks mutiny at Opis in summer of 324

  26. Alexander's policies death of Alexander increasingly erratic behavior grief over death of Hephaistion plans to conquer Arabia (armies not eager) dies in Babylon June 10 323 aged 32 Generals divide empire amongst themselves; Successor kingdoms fight each other for next 2 centuries. Ptolemy founds longest lasting kingdom in Egypt ends with Cleopatra in 31 BC

  27. Alexander's Empire (332-26)