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EOQ Review. Day 1. Scientific Method Review. Scientific Method. So what’s really involved….go to the next slide…. Words to know (define). Observation Hypothesis Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Group Experimental Group. Control Group vs. Experimental Group.

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Day 1
Day 1

  • Scientific Method Review


Scientific method
Scientific Method

  • So what’s really involved….go to the next slide…..


Words to know define
Words to know (define)

  • Observation

  • Hypothesis

  • Independent Variable

  • Dependent Variable

  • Control Group

  • Experimental Group


Control group vs experimental group
Control Group vs. Experimental Group

Click here for a controlled

vs.

uncontrolled experiment!

What’s wrong with this?

Water


Peer review
Peer Review

  • Working together is important in science…COLLABORATION

  • Important to verify the validity of scientific research

  • Anonymous group of experts in that field


Practice
Practice

Experimental Scenario #1

  • A student investigated whether ants dig more tunnels in the light or in the dark. She thought that ants used the filtered light that penetrated the upper layers of earth and would dig more tunnels during the daytime. Ten ant colonies were set up in commercial ant farms with the same number and type of ants per ant farm. The same amount of food was given to each colony, and the colonies were in the same temperature. Five of the colonies were exposed to normal room light and five were covered with black construction paper so they did not receive light. Every other day for three weeks the length of the tunnels was measured in millimeter using a string and a ruler. Averages for the light and dark groups for each measured were then computed. The averages are listed in the following chart.

Independent variable?

Dependent Variable?

Things to keep constant?

Control group?

Experimental group?

Conclusion?

More Practice Problems

Click me!


Analyzing data practice problem
Analyzing Data Practice Problem

  • Practice Analyzing Trends in Data (click me)

  • Practice Interpreting Graphs (click me)


Eoq test practice
EOQ Test Practice

  • Do Not write in test book

  • QUESTIONS: 3, 4, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 22, 23, 32, 33, 37, 39, 46, 51, 52, 53, 59


Making it make sense
Making It Make Sense

The Scientific Method

  • Graphic Organizer

    • Copy and complete this flow chart listing and explaining the steps of the scientific method…feel free to add on any levels



Characteristics of life
Characteristics of Life

  • Genetic code

  • Made up of one or more cells

  • Respond to stimuli

  • Grow and develop

  • Use and obtain resources to produce energy

  • Reproduce

  • Maintain Homeostasis

  • Evolve over time


Genetic code
Genetic Code

  • All living things have DNA made up of the same types of nucleotides (ATGC)

  • These nucleotides code for the same 20-23 Amino Acids

  • How are all living things so different?

    • Because we have different sequences of DNA=….

      • different SEQUENCES of our Nucleotides=Different sequences of AMINO ACIDS= ..

        • different living things


Eoq review

Both SEXUAL and ASEXUAL reproduction require

REPLICATION of DNA

in order to produce offspring


All living things are trying to

Survive and Reproduce!!!

All living things are trying to…????


Classification of life
Classification of Life

  • 3 Domains

    • Archaea

    • Bacteria

    • Eukarya

  • 6 Kingdoms

    • Archaeabacteria

    • Eubacteria

    • Protista

    • Fungi

    • Plant

    • Animal


Cladograms
Cladograms

  • Tree-like diagram showing  evolutionary relationships


Eoq1 test question review
EOQ1 Test Question review

  • Questions: 10, 11, 24, 25, 31, 34, 35, 36, 38, 42, 43, 44, 49, 54, 57, 60


Making it make sense1
Making it Make Sense

  • Create your own version of this classification chart



Properties of water
Properties of Water

  • Water POLARITY allows…

    • Versatility as a solvent

    • Capillary action-adhesion and cohesion (high surface tension)

    • Expansion upon freezing

      • Energy released when Hydrogen bonds form in ice

    • High specific heat= temperature moderation


Macromolecules
Macromolecules

  • Polymer

  • Monomer


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates

  • Monomer: monosaccharide (glucose) and disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)

    • Functions:

      • Glucose makes ATP (energy) in cell respiration (instant energy)

  • Polymer: polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose)

    • Functions:

      • Glycogen/Starch Energy storage in animals/plants (chains of glucose)

      • Cellulose structure…CELLULOSE…plant cell walls


  • Carbohydrates1
    Carbohydrates

    • Divided into 3 main groups:

      • Monomer: Monosaccharide or Disaccharide

      • Polymer: Polysaccharide

    • Link between monomers is called: GlycosidicLinkage

      • Formed by a dehydration/condensationreaction

    • Always have Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygens

      • Cx(H2O)y

    • Common name: sugar

      • End with suffix “-ose”

    • Function: Energy/fuel, structure,storage

    • GLUCOSE!!!!

      • What all cells need for energy


    Carbs in the living world
    Carbs in the Living world

    • Click here to check it out


    Lipids
    Lipids

    • Hydrophobic

    • Fats (triglycerides)

    • Phospholipids

    • Oils

    • Waxes

    • Steroids

      • cholesterol

    • Major Function:

      • ENERGY STORAGE

      • Water proofing


    Triglycerides
    Triglycerides

    • Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen…some oxygen

    • Usually not soluble in water

      • HYDROPHOBIC!!!

    • Not a polymer but is made of molecular units

    • Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids= FAT

    • Linkage is called ESTER linkage

      • Dehydration reaction

    • Function

      • Energy storage

      • Insulation

      • Waterproofing

      • Water synthesis


    Eoq review

    Phospholipids

    -make up the cell membrane

    -Have Phosphate group (charged) with two fatty acid chains attached

    -makes the cell membrane hydrophilic AND hydrophobic


    Lipids in the living world
    Lipids in the Living world

    • Click here to check it out


    Eoq test practice1
    EOQ Test Practice

    • Do Not write in test book

    • QUESTIONS:Water: 2, 12, 17, 20, 21, 26, 40, 45, 47 Carbs/Lipids: 1, 7, 13


    Making it make sense2
    Making It Make Sense

    • Umbrellas

      • Create an umbrella for carbs and one for lipids and complete

    • Water Square

      • Copy and complete for properties of water

      • Include a picture representing each property

    Property 1

    Property 2

    Water

    Property 3

    Property 4



    Nucleic acids
    Nucleic Acids

    Central Dogma Of Biology

    DNA RNAProtein

    • Monomer: Nucleotide

      • Structure of a Nucleotide

        • Made of a phosphate group, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and nitrogenous base

    • Polymer: Chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids)

      • Contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and nitrogen

      • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

      • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

      • FUNCTION: Store and transmit hereditary, or genetic information…makes PROTEINS that do everything!




    Proteins
    Proteins

    • Monomer: AMINO ACID

    • Polymer: POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN…eventually becomes PROTEIN

    • Functions:

      • EVERYTHING!!!

        • Enzymes-> catalysts that speed up chemical reactions

          • DNA helicase, RNA polymerase, catalase, lactase, sucrase

        • Defense antibodies

        • Transporthemoglobin

        • Membrane

        • Signaling

        • Structurecollagen

        • And much, much, more


    Protein structure levels
    Protein: Structure levels

    Every FUNCTIONING protein MUST have a 3-D shape!!!

    AKA Tertiary Structure


    Denaturation
    Denaturation

    • Unraveling/unfolding of protein

    • Why would this be a problem?

    • When protein loses its 3-D shape and thus its specific function

    • Caused by:

      • Unfavorable changes in pH, temperature or other environmental condition

      • Disrupts the interactions between side chains and causes loss of shape

    • Examples:

      • Frying an egg

      • Straightening your hair


    Proteins and nucleic acids in the living world
    Proteins and Nucleic Acids in the Living world

    • Click here to check it out


    Proteins enzymes
    Proteins:ENZYMES!!!

    Proteins

    Biological catalysts that speed up the rate of chemical reactions

    They help make products faster!

    Never used up!

    “Matchmaker”



    Eoq test practice2
    EOQ Test Practice

    • Do Not write in test book

      • QUESTIONS:

      • Nucleic acids: 18, 41, 50

      • Proteins: 27, 28, 29, 48, 55

      • Enzymes: 6, 19, 30, 56,58


    Making it make sense3
    Making It Make Sense

    • Raining Macromolecules

      • Create Umbrellas for Proteins and Nucleic acids and complete

    Copy graph and explain in a paragraph what this tells us about enzyme A and B.


    Building macromolecules
    Building Macromolecules

    • Green= CARBON atom

    • Yellow= OXYGEN atom

    • White= HYDROGEN atom

    • Pink= NITROGEN atom or NITROGENOUS BASE (label with letters)

      • Two pink=Purines (Adenine and Guanine)

      • One pink=Pyrimidines (Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil)

    • Orange= PHOSPHATE GROUP (label with P)

    • One tooth pick= SINGLE COVALENT BOND

    • Two toothpicks= DOUBLE COVALENT BOND

      ******Do NOT use whole toothpicks for bonds, break them in half!!!!

    • Create the following macromolecules and/or linkages with the supplies provided

      • Glucose

      • Triglyceride

      • Phospholipid

      • Amino Acid

        The following must be done with a partner:

      • Ester linkage

      • Glycosidic linkage

      • Peptide bond


    Macromolecule legend
    Macromolecule Legend

    • Green= CARBON atom

    • Yellow= OXYGEN atom

    • White= HYDROGEN atom

    • Pink= NITROGEN atom or NITROGENOUS BASE (label with letters)

      • Two pink=Purines (Adenine and Guanine)

      • One pink=Pyrimidines (Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil)

    • Orange= SULFUR atom or PHOSPHATE GROUP (label with P)

    • One tooth pick= SINGLE COVALENT BOND

    • Two toothpicks= DOUBLE COVALENT BOND

      ******Do NOT use whole toothpicks for bonds, break them in half!!!!