Download
know that the buck starts and stops with you n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Know That the Buck Starts and Stops With You PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Know That the Buck Starts and Stops With You

Know That the Buck Starts and Stops With You

113 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Know That the Buck Starts and Stops With You

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Know That the Buck Starts and Stops With You Chapter 2

  2. PLEASE TURN OFF YOUR CELL PHONES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • THANKS

  3. Determinism vs. Free Will • Determinism – the view that everything that occurs in nature has lawful causes, even if we are unaware of the specific causes, including human behavior

  4. Free Will – human beings freely choose how to act and ignore so-called determining factors, like the environment or genetics

  5. Deterministic Theories • Biologically based theories – we are a product of our genetic heritage, ex. Children of people with various abilities, schizophrenia, other genetic disorders • Psychoanalytic Theory – Freud’s idea that early experiences determine later behavior • Behaviorism – Our behavior is determined by our learning and conditioning histories and maintained by current reinforcements

  6. Free Will Theories • Existentialism – Based on European philosophy, although life has restrictions and problems, you have the freedom to make choices that can transcend those conditions. • Humanism – Our behavior is the result of our choices and the unfolding of our true selves, “self-actualization” • Cognitive - Behaviorism – the S-O-R model

  7. Proactivity • The recognition that our choices determine our lives and that we can take action to shape our own lives, we are responsible for these choices and consequences. • Behavior is a result of conscious choice based on values, and not a product of your conditions based on feelings.

  8. Locus of Control • Internal and External

  9. Locus of Control Scale • 1. I usually get what I want in life. • 2. I need to be kept informed about news events. • 3. I never know where I stand with other people. • 4. I do not really believe in luck or chance. • 5. I think that I could easily win a lottery. • 6. If I do not succeed on a task, I tend to give up. • 7. I usually convince others to do things my way.

  10. 8. People make a difference in controlling crime. • 9. The success I have is largely a matter of chance. • 10. Marriage is largely a gamble for most people. • 11. People must be the master of their own fate. • 12. It is not important for me to vote. • 13. My life seems like a series of random events. • 14. I never try anything that I am not sure of. • 15. I earn the respect and honors I receive.

  11. 16. A person can get rich by taking risks. • 17. Leaders are successful when they work hard. • 18. Persistence and hard work usually lead to success. • 19. It is difficult to know who my real friends are. • 20. Other people usually control my life.

  12. 1. T 2. T 3. F 4. T 5. F 6. F 7. T 8. T 9. F 10. F 11. T 12. F 13. F 14. T 15. T 16. F 17. T 18. T 19. F 20. F SCORINGGive yourself five points for every matching answer.

  13. INTERPRETATION • 0-15 Very strong external locus of control20-35 External locus of control40-60 Both external and internal locus of control65-80 Internal locus of control85-100 Very strong internal locus of control

  14. The Internal-External Control Scale (popularly called “locus of control scale”) attempts to measure the degree to which people perceive a causal relationship between their own efforts and environmental consequences. People who score high (in the direction of internal control) believe that reinforcement is generally contingent on their own actions or personal traits.

  15. Internal – tends to be self-motivated and optimistic, tend to take responsibility for their actions and see themselves as the cause of what happens in their life. They try to learn what went wrong when they make mistakes so they can correct them.

  16. External – tend not to see the connection between their actions and what happens. Will often blame others for their problems and mistakes. They may fear change and tend to look to others to motivate them. They often feel nothing can be done when things go wrongLaunch Internet Explorer Browser and will blame, “fate.”

  17. Increasing Proactivity • Focus on: • 1. Your thoughts • 2. Your language • 3. Your actions • All three go into doing things, and therefore influencing the reality you create for yourself.

  18. Focusing on Your Thoughts • Worrying is one example of an unproductive way of thinking, because it doesn’t involve any solution to anything, but is mostly a replay of dire and negative possibilities. 80% of what we worry about never happens. Planning for the negative is not the same as worrying about it.

  19. Focusing on Your Language • The way we speak to ourself goes a long way to determining how we see and relate to reality. If we say to ourself, “That idiot made me angry” we become the passive recipient of our own emotions, but if we say, “I am angry at that idiot’s behavior,” then we recognize that we are controlling our own emotions.

  20. Focusing on Your Actions • Proactivity in actions has two aspects: • 1. Making promises and keeping them. • 2. Setting small goals and working to achieve them. • Effective people do the things that ineffective people don’t feel like doing, to be effective you must be willing to do what is necessary.

  21. Self-Talk • We all have a running commentary in our heads that acts as a buffer between us and the environment, it is often called Self-Talk. • Self-talk can be reasonable and adaptive or it can become irrational and interfere with our ability to function at a high and healthy level.

  22. Irrational Self-Talk • There are two broad categories of irrational self-talk: • 1. Beliefs that other people or the world or something should be different • 2. Beliefs that your perceptions represent the only reality and not just your particular view of reality.

  23. Our experience of reality originates in sensory experience which is then elaborated on by our perceptions and cognitions, which then influences our emotions and physiology, which in turn feeds back into our self-talk and the cycle continues.

  24. Beliefs, interpretive schemes, self-concepts, etc. Personal construct, attitudes, learned reactions, may or may not be adaptive or accurate, etc. Outer environment persona super ego Self-concept: perception of self and self-skills and goals on many levels and idealized self – accurate or inaccurate decoding ego ideal cognitive con. mind (ego) Stimuli or Input self-concept pre-con. cognitive perceptual schemes or filters filters for inner stimuli affective unconscious Inner world of stimuli Overall evaluation of self as well as specific acts Interpersonal realm Defenses against impulses & emotional anxiety realm of external stimuli and conditioning Physiological needs Id drives Graphics courtesy of Cristina Rivera

  25. Common Forms of Irrational Self-Talk • 1. Statements that catastrophize – giving the worst most horrible interpretation to events in the absence of evidence, but based merely on anxiety filled thinking. • 2. Statements that are absolutes – these demand that things “should, must, ought, always, or never” be a certain way, and if they are not it is “terrible, intolerable, catastrophic, etc.”

  26. Cognitive Restructuring • This really means learning to think differently, hopefully more reasonably. • Here are some common irrational beliefs that can be “restructured.” • 1. Everyone needs to like you, it is awful if someone dislikes you. • 2. You must be competent and perfect in all you do. • 3. Mistakes are sure proof that you are a failure.

  27. 4. You should never hurt anyone or refuse a request/favor. • 5. It is horrible if things don’t turn out the way you want all the time. • 6. You are helpless and have no control over your feelings and experiences. • 7. You will be rejected if you don’t go to great lengths to please others. • 8. There is a perfect love and a perfect relationship. • 9. You shouldn’t have to feel pain, life should always be fair and pleasant. • 10. Your worth depends on what you achieve and do.

  28. What to do? • Once a variation of an irrational belief is noticed, the first step is to examine and challenge the validity of that belief with our rational mind. • 1. Is there reason to think the belief is true? • 2. Is there evidence that this belief is untrue? • 3. If I reject this belief, what is the worst that could happen to me? • 4. If I reject this belief, what good things might happen to me?

  29. New Rational Beliefs • The next step is to substitute a new more rational belief for the old, irrational one. What are some more rational beliefs we can substitute for these irrational ones? • 1. Everyone needs to like you, it is awful if someone dislikes you. • 2. You must be competent and perfect in all you do. • 3. Mistakes are sure proof that you are a failure.

  30. 4. You should never hurt anyone or refuse a request/favor. • 5. It is horrible if things don’t turn out the way you want all the time. • 6. You are helpless and have no control over your feelings and experiences. • 7. You will be rejected if you don’t go to great lengths to please others. • 8. There is a perfect love and a perfect relationship. • 9. You shouldn’t have to feel pain, life should always be fair and pleasant. • 10. Your worth depends on what you achieve and do.

  31. Goodman’s Rules for Rational Thinking • 1. It does not do anything to me – what we say to ourselves produces negative emotions, not the situation itself. • 2. Everything is exactly the way it should be – things are the way they are because of a long series of causal events, saying they “should” be different negates these causes. • 3. All humans are fallible creatures. • 4. It takes two to have a conflict – any party to a conflict contributes at least 30% of the fuel to keep it going.

  32. 5. The original cause is lost in antiquity-often finding the exact cause of something is almost impossible, best to decide to change behavior now. • 6. We feel the way we think – what you say to yourself determines your feelings.

  33. Causation and Correlation • What are the differences?

  34. Empirical study! A TRUE experiment is a research method where one variable (IV) is manipulated to see if there is a change in another variable (DV). MOST social sciences research can’t be done in a lab, is of pre-existing groups, etc. and is correlational... Correlation does NOT mean CAUSATION, however…. Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Hutchens, 2002

  35. How do we determine if a study is done well?What makes a good one? Look for… 1. Clearly defined variables. DEPENDENT & INDEPENDENT variables No confusion as to what is being measured or HOW! 2. Could YOU repeat the study? (replicability!) 3. What is its REPRESENTATIVENESS, i.e., is it GENERALIZABLE? Is the sample an accurate representation of all those to whom it is suppose to apply? 4. Is it a CORRELATION study? BEWARE if the authors infer (or state) CAUSALITY!! Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Hutchens, 2002

  36. Social sciences research is often correlational. What is correlation?? (“co-relation”) • A relationship between two (or more) variables • Results are correlation coefficients • Coefficients represent the strength of relationship •   Range: between +1.00 and –1.00 •   Correlations nearer to zero suggests no relationship • Coefficients represent the direction of the relationship • Positive correlations show a direct relationship, the same direction (higher high school GPA & grades in college) • Negative correlations show an inverse relationship, in opposite directions (increased student absenteeism & grades on exams)

  37. Optimism • op·ti·mism n. A tendency to expect the best possible outcome or dwell on the most hopeful aspects of a situation. • The tendency to a world view that focuses on reasons to be happy and satisfied with life despite its imperfections.

  38. Optimism and Health • Research shows that four traits are associated with happy people: • 1. Optimism • 2. Good self-esteem • 3. An internal locus of control • 4. Extraversion. • These were established by correlational studies

  39. Pessimism is associated with high stress levels, depression, psychosomatic problems, higher levels of physical illness and premature death. • Optimism is a better predictor of college success than SAT scores. • Emotional attitudes were a critical factor in academic success.

  40. TAKE THE OPTIMISM TEST ON PAGE • 35 AND 36.

  41. Tips for Optimism • Look for evidence, do not catastrophize when negative things occur. • Don’t generalize from limited information. • Examine alternatives. Look for what is changeable, specific, and non-personal instead of what is permanent, pervasive and personal.

  42. If a negative belief turns out to be true, decatastrophize it. Challenge the most negative alternatives and examine how realistic those alternative really are. • Optimists tend to: • Face problems directly. • Develop a plan • Accept the reality of the situation • Learn how to grow from adversity