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Chapter 2: The Buck Starts and Stops with You

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  1. Chapter 2: The Buck Starts and Stops with You Dr. M. Davis-Brantley

  2. Determinism vs. Free Will • Many different theories as to how human beings become who they are • Scientific disciplines were developed in order to determine the causes of events • Initially, scientists believed that behavior was the result of a natural cause • This theory is referred to as Determinism the belief in cause and effect relationship • Determinists feel that all human actions are caused by something else, specifically other than free choice • On the opposite end of the spectrum is Free Will in which these individuals assert that human beings can and do ignore so-called determining factors such as genetics and freely choose how and when to act

  3. Continuum from Determinism to Free Will Determinism Biological (Genetic Determinism) Freudian (Psychic Determinism) Behavioral (Environmental Determinism) Free Will Cognitive-Behavioral Humanism Existentialism

  4. Deterministic Theories (Biological) • Determinists assert that individuals are a result of our genetic make ups • All of our behaviors can be traced back to our genetic makeup • Proof for these theories rests in the concept that certain abilities, talents, emotional/physical disorders can run in families • Book examples Famous singers/athletes, etc… • Emotional Disorders are highly inheritable (see next slide)

  5. Prevalence of Schizophrenia in Populations

  6. Deterministic Theories (Psychoanalytic Theory) • Psychoanalytic Theory by Sigmund Freud asserts that individuals become who they are based on they way you are raised until age 6 (this dictates who you will be later on in life) • Freud asserts that we progress through 5 different psychosexual stages that last until the age of 6 • Oral Stage (1st Year) • Gratification is obtained through oral activities such as sucking or biting • This occurs during the 1st year of life and is how the child begins to learn about the world • Early weaning can result in frustration and result in indulgence later on in life and these individuals are likely to be dependent, overeat, smoke, use alcohol excessively, or nail bite • Anal Stage (2nd Year) • Gratification is obtained through contraction and relaxation of the muscles that control bowel movements. Early on these muscle work involuntarily. • Toilet training is likely to take place during this time and the child is learning to distinguish between immediate gratification and self-control • Phallic Stage (3rd Year-5 or 6th year) • Libidinal energy has moved to the genital area of the body (penis and clitoris) • Children may be reprimanded for masturbatory behaviors that aren’t socially acceptable • Children may begin to form affection for members of the opposite sex and the Oedipus/Electra complex may arise • Oedipus/Electra complex typically resolves itself by ages 5 & 6 where the child begins to identify with the member of their own gender and seeing that individual as someone to learn from and they begin to incorporate gender roles and demands into repertoire • Latency Stage • Resolution of the complex leads to the entering into the repression of all sexual feelings until they reemerge during the genital stage in adolescence • Genital Stage (Adolescence)

  7. Behaviorism: Environmental Theory • This theory asserts that we are a result of our learning histories and previous reinforcements and consequences we have learned in the past • “You become a good student because you have been rewarded for your academic achievement” • Your environment dictates your behavior

  8. Behaviorism: Classical Conditioning • Pavlov placed meat powder on the dog’s tongue which led to the dog salivating • Then he repeated this process while ringing a bell • After several pairings of the meat powder and the bell the two became associated • When Pavlov would ring the bell the dog learned salivate in response to the bell because the bell and meat powder were conditioned

  9. Behaviorism: Operant Conditioning • Reinforcement is a stimulus that increases the frequency of a behavior • Different from a reward in that by contrast a reward is a pleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of a behavior • Positive Reinforcement increases the frequency of behavior when presented • Ex: Laughter Sr+ Joke telling • Negative Reinforcement is a reinforcer that increases the frequency of a behavior when it is removed • Ex: Umbrella prevents getting wet in a rainstorm • Ex: Seat belt buzzer serves a Sr- function the annoying sound is terminated when the driver buckles up

  10. More Theories, Very Different Perspective

  11. Existentialism • Began as a major theory of philosophy • Asserts the view that individuals are completely free to choose their courses of action and ultimately responsible for their actions • Holds the fundamental view that human beings are painful free to make choice, in that we can not escape from the responsibility that comes with the ability to choose • Even by not making a choice, you have made a choice, thus allowing others to determine who we are and what we should do

  12. Humanistic Theory • Popularized by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers who hypothesized that people are capable of free choice, self-fulfillment, and ethical behavior • Maslow believed in a hierarchy of needs that need to be satisfied in order until the individual can reach self-actualization • Self-actualization is the tendency to strive toward an individual’s complete potential (the best person you can be)

  13. Cognitive Behavior Theory • Suggest that Behaviorists primarily focus on “overt” behavior of individuals and not “covert” behaviors such as our thoughts and the internal self talk that precedes behaviors • Cognitive-Behavior theorists assert that there is forethought before you engage in a particular behavior • Behaviorism is based on a cause and effect approach or a stimulus-response approach (S-R), whereas, C-B theory uses a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) • These theorists assert that there is thought which contributes to your response not just the stimulus • Book example: You walk into your house and your spouse or family member begins yelling at you for being late (S) and you yell back (R) according to behavior theory • C-B theory states that there is thought (O) and an individual can think in different ways and then respond (R) • Thought: “Who is s/he yelling at”—Your response is = Yelling back • Thought: “S/he is really worried about me” Your response is = ???

  14. Proactivity • Proactivity is “the most important paradigm guiding the behavior of effective individuals” and those individuals have the freedom to choose to be effective/proactive • Consider Existential theory which asserts we have the responsibility of to make choices in life • The word Responsibility carries many different meanings for different individuals • How do you see Responsibility? Paying bills, cleaning the house,…. Limiting your freedom and holding you back??? • Proactive individuals view responsibility as a choice and the ability to make things happen in your world • Examine the word responsibility—Response-ability—the ability to choose your response • These individuals do not blame circumstances or conditions for their behavior; they take responsibility for their behaviors and their lives

  15. Proactivity: Locus of Control • External Locus of Control—Individuals who see the external world as responsible for their lives. • These individuals feel like victims of the world and abused by external events that they have no control over • EX: I did poorly on the test because the teacher made it hard/tricky • These individuals respond to their world utilizing “reactivity” in that they simply react to their world and are at the mercy of forces beyond their control • Internal Locus of Control—These individuals believe that they are responsible for the ultimate outcomes of their life and do not believe that fate will control their lives. • Instead they believe they have control over what happens in their world • Individuals with an internal locus of control tend to be proactive and make things happen in their lives and choose the responses they choose to engage in or utilize

  16. Ways to Increase Proactivity • Focusing on Your Thoughts • Those who are reactive (or have an external locus of control) tend to focus on the negative possibilities that surround them • Those who are proactive choose their outlook on the world and allow their choice to dictate their lives • EX: “It’s Monday, I’m so tired” vs. ??????? • Focusing on Your Language • “He made me angry” or “I couldn’t make it to class, I was too tired” instead of “I am angry about something he did” • You are responsible and in control of your response • Focusing on Your Actions • 2 habits • Making promises and keeping them • Setting small goals and working to achieve them • What else???

  17. How else can I become more proactive? • Dealing with irrational self-talk helps to change the way you think of things • Catastrophizing is when an individual tells themselves that a situation is too overwhelming or too awful or that the worse is about to happen • Automatic Thoughts are thoughts that occur to you automatically and without you thinking about them • The problem arises when these thoughts influence lead to/contribute to irrational beliefs • Automatic thought=“Men are cheaters”=How will you respond in your everyday life??? • Remember thoughts have no value until you give them value • Order of Self-Talk: • Environmental events Sensory perceptionCognitions/Self-talkEmotional/Physical SystemsReaction to world

  18. Cognitive Restructuring • Cognitive Restructuring involves taking the effort to change how you see the world or changing your thoughts • Step 1: Identify the Irrational belief • All men are cheaters • It is horrible when things don’t turn out my way • I have no control over the things that happen in my life • Step 2: Examine and Challenge the irrational beliefs with a rational mind • Why do I believe this to be true, What is the evidence to support my belief, If I reject this belief what is the worst that can happen, If I reject this belief, what is the best that could happen • Step 3: Actually reframe the thought • Reframe previous examples • Step 4: Practice, Practice, Practice

  19. Correlation vs. Causation • Correlation is when two variables tend to be reliably associated with one another • Ex: Relationship between height and weight • Ex: Relationship between high stress and low immune functioning • Ex: High IQ’s are related to nearsightedness (glasses). Why? • Does it always work this way??? In areas where there are more churches, there are more liquor stores. Why? • Causation involves one thing causing another • Just because two things occur together does not offer proof that one caused the other. There are other factors that can play a role • Spurious Correlation is the human tendency to perceive a correlation or relationship between things that really does not exist