Europe in two world wars
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Europe in Two World Wars. Causes of world War I. Nationalism – extreme patriotism Italian nationalists freed Italy from foreign control and unified Italy. Led by Giuseppe Garibaldi. Germany also was divided. Otto von Bismark created a unified Germany.

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Causes of world war i
Causes of world War I

  • Nationalism – extreme patriotism

  • Italian nationalists freed Italy from foreign control and unified Italy.

  • Led by Giuseppe Garibaldi.

  • Germany also was divided.

  • Otto von Bismark created a unified Germany.

  • Both countries sought to find their place among world powers.


  • Nationalism and the Industrial Revolution led to Militarism.

  • Countries built strong militaries to expand their power to build overseas empires.

  • Carved up much of Africa and Asia.

  • Powerful countries came in conflict with each other.

  • Nations glorified war and military power.


  • Tension grew, countries formed alliances to aid them in case of war.

  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy formed the Triple Alliance.

  • France, Britain, Russia formed the Triple Entente.

  • This created more tension.

The beginning
The Beginning

  • June 1914 – Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was visiting Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia.

  • He and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian nationalists.

  • Austria accused Serbia of planning this and threatened war.

  • Germany stood by Austria.

  • Russia stood by Serbia.

The beginning1
The Beginning

  • August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia.

  • France and Britain side with Russia.

  • Austria and Italy side with Germany.

  • World War I has begun.

Europe in two world wars

  • War was fought on many fronts.

  • Trench warfare – soldiers dug long trenches protected by mines and barbed wire.

  • One side would shell the other then send its soldiers “over the top”.

  • Hundreds of thousands of soldiers were lost for very little territory.

New weapons
New Weapons

  • Both side used new weapons.

  • Machine guns, poison gas.

  • Caused mass casualties.

  • Use of aircraft, first for observation then later for bombing and “dogfights”.

  • German “U-boats” attacked merchant ships.

  • April 1917 – U.S. is drawn into the war.

The end
The End

  • Presence of American soldiers boosted the morale of the Allies.

  • In early 1918 American and Allied forces pushed back a final German offensive.

  • November 11, 1918 – Allies and Germany signed and armistice agreement ending the war.

The peace
The Peace

  • 1919 – Met in Paris to develop a peace settlement.

  • Treaty of Versailles imposed harsh terms on Germany because it blamed them for starting the war.

  • Included heavy reparations.

  • War caused enormous property damage.

  • Millions killed or wounded.

Rise of dictators
Rise of Dictators

  • During 1920’s and 1930’s Europe struggled to recover from the WWI.

  • People faced economic hardships and political unrest.

  • Turned to powerful leaders who promised a better future.

Facist italy
Facist Italy

  • Italy plagued by bad economy and blmaed government for the problems.

  • Benito Mussolini founded the Facist Party.

  • Glorified the state and supported nationalist expansion.

  • Condemned democracy

  • Mussolini ruled as a dictator.

  • Silenced critics, controlled army, created secret police, invaded Ethiopia.

Nazi germany
Nazi Germany

  • Experienced extreme turmoil after the war.

  • Inflation and high reparations weakened the economy.

  • Adolf Hitler gained control of the National Socialist Party.

  • Blamed Jews for Germany’s problems.

  • 1933- Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.

  • Crushed opposition and became the “Furhrer”.

Nazi germany1
Nazi Germany

  • Secret Police arrested anyone who opposed the Nazi’s.

  • Used propaganda to spread their message.

  • Waged violent campaign against the Jews.

  • Sent millions of Jews to concentration camps.

  • 6 million Jews and 5 million others lost their lives in concentration camps.

Europe in two world wars

  • September 1, 1939 – Germany invades Poland; official beginning of WWII.

  • Britain and France declare war on Germany (Allies).

  • Italy and Japan align with Germany(Axis).

  • Allies will eventually include the Soviet Union, the U.S., and 45 other countries.

Europe in two world wars

  • The Axis advances across Europe in the early years.

  • Military strategy was the “blitzkrieg”, “lightning war”.

  • Planes, tanks, artillery, and mechanized infantry launched a combined attack on a country.

  • Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France all fall by 1941.

Europe in two world wars

  • Britain is the next target.

  • German bombers run nightly bombing raids to weaken England before invading it.

  • The Battle of Britain was eventually won by courageous British pilots with aid from the U.S.

  • In June 1941 Hitler invades Russia. Successful until stopped by harsh winter and fierce fighting by Russian soldiers.

Europe in two world wars

Europe in two world wars

  • 1942- the tide begins to turn. Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor.

  • Axis advance in North Africa is stopped and Germans badly defeated at Battle of El Alamein.

  • Germans defeated at Battle of Stalingrad, 1943.

  • U.S. Marines push Japanese out of Guadalcanal in February of 1943.

Europe in two world wars

  • “Island hopping” continues as U.S. gains control of the South Pacific by defeating the Japanese on Tarawa, Iwo Jima, the Solomon Islands, and Okinawa.

  • June 6, 1944 – D-Day – allies land huge invasion force on the beaches of Normandy on the coast of France. Begin to push Germans back into Germany.

  • August 25, 1944 – Paris is liberated.

Europe in two world wars

  • December, 1944 – Battle of the Bulge – major German offensive to try and break the invasion. Eventually fails due to the efforts of U.S. General George S. Patton and his 3rd Armored Division.

  • Russian troops move into Germany from the east and American and British forces cross into Germany on the west.

Europe in two world wars

  • April 30, 1945 – Hitler commits suicide in his bunker in Berlin.

  • May 7, 1945 – Germany officially surrenders and the war in Europe ends.

  • U.S. prepares for a massive invasion of the Japanese Islands. Estimates of expected casualties are extremely high.

  • August 6, 1945 – U.S. drops atomic bomb on Japanese city of Hiroshima.

Europe in two world wars

Effects of wwii
Effects of WWII of Nagasaki.

  • 30 million deaths in Europe and possibly 60 million worldwide.

  • Many cities in Europe and Asia destroyed or heavily devastated.

  • Millions of homeless people.

  • 6 million Jews murdered along with another 5 million Gypsies, homosexuals, political prisoners, and mentally and physically handicapped people during the Holocaust.

Europe in two world wars