forestry l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Forestry PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Forestry

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 45

Forestry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 199 Views
  • Uploaded on

Forestry. Outline. World Forests Tropical Forests Swidden Agriculture Temperate Forests Harvest Methods Fire Management. WORLD LAND USES. Earth’s total land area is about 29% of globe. 11% of landmass is now used for crop production.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Forestry' - marci


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
forestry

Forestry

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

outline
Outline
  • World Forests
  • Tropical Forests
    • Swidden Agriculture
  • Temperate Forests
    • Harvest Methods
    • Fire Management

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

world land uses
WORLD LAND USES
  • Earth’s total land area is about 29% of globe.
    • 11% of landmass is now used for crop production.
    • Half of present forests and grazing lands could be converted.
      • Immediate and destructive impacts on landscape and wildlife.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

uses of landmass 29 of world
Uses of Landmass (29% of world)

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

world forests
WORLD FORESTS
  • Forests play vital ecological roles
    • Regulating climate, controlling water runoff, providing food and shelter for wildlife, and purifying air.
  • Provide valuable materials.
    • Wood, paper-pulp.
  • Scenic, cultural, and historic value.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

forest distribution
Forest Distribution
  • 1/3rd of original forests and woodlands have been converted to other uses.
    • Forests and woodlands cover 32% of earth’s land surface.
        • Greatest concern is over protection of Old-Growth Forests.
          • Only 22% retain old-growth characteristics.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

world forests7
World Forests

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

forest products
Forest Products
  • Wood plays a part in more activities of the modern economy than any other commodity.
    • Industrial Timber and unprocessed logs account for about half of worldwide wood consumption.
      • Developed countries produce less than 1/2 all industrial wood, but account for 80% of consumption.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

forest products9
Forest Products
  • US, Russia, and Canada are largest producers of industrial wood and paper pulp.
    • Japan is world’s largest wood importer.
      • US is both major exporter and importer.
        • Buy wood and paper from Canada and processed wood products from Japan.
        • Sell raw logs to Japan and other countries.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

forest management
Forest Management
  • Approximately 25% of world’s forests are actively managed for wood production.
    • Sustainable harvest is key to regeneration.
      • Most countries replant far fewer trees than were harvested.
        • Many reforestation projects involve Monoculture Cropping.
          • Disrupts ecological processes.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

tropical forests
TROPICAL FORESTS
  • Occupy 10% of landmass, and contain:
    • More than 2/3rds of all higher plant biomass.
    • At least 1/2 of all plant, animal, and microbial species.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

tropical forests shrinking
Tropical Forests Shrinking
  • 0.8% of remaining forest cleared each year.
      • Countries have economic and political reasons to hide extent of losses.
          • Brazil has largest rainforests, and highest rate of deforestation.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

tropical forests shrinking13
Tropical Forests Shrinking

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

deforestation in the amazon basin

Cattle grazing

Deforestation inthe Amazon Basin

Logging

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

tropical forest losses
Tropical Forest Losses

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

amazon deforestation remains high
Amazon Deforestation Remains High

Even selective logging destroys canopy,causes river siltation, opens roads

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

desertification threatens forest edges
Desertification threatens forest edges

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

chipko movement in india
Chipko Movement in India

Women blocking

mass logging,

deforestation

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

swidden agriculture
Swidden Agriculture
  • Can be ecologically sound and sustainable if performed carefully and in moderation.
  • Slash and Burn
    • Small lot cleared, dried, and burned.
      • Ashes used to prepare seedbed.
        • Fast-growing crops planted to control erosion, shade crops, and anchor soil.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

slide21

Cropped intensively

for 1-2 years,

and then rested

10-15 years.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

logging and land invasions
Logging and Land Invasions
  • Other major source of forest destruction
    • Bulldozed roads make it possible for people to move into the forest for farmland.
      • Forest clearing leads to river degradation through increased silt and sediment flow.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

debt for nature swaps
Debt-for-Nature Swaps
  • Banks, governments, and lending institutions hold nearly $1 trillion in loans to developing countries.
    • Conservation organizations buy debt obligations discount, and then offer to cancel the debt if the debtor country will agree to protect or restore an area of biological importance.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

temperate forests
TEMPERATE FORESTS
  • Northern countries have a long history of liquidating forest resources.
    • Siberia contains 1/4 of the world’s timber reserves.
      • Asian companies cutting 10 mil. acres/year

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

temperate forests in the u s
Temperate Forests in the U.S.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

ancient forests of the pacific northwest
Ancient Forests of the Pacific Northwest
  • Redwoods can reach 3-4 m in diameter, 90 m in height and 1,000 years in age.
    • Temperate rainforests are 2nd only to tropical rainforests in biodiversity.
      • Accumulate more biomass in standing vegetation per unit area.
        • Less than 10% of virgin temperate rainforest remain
          • (80% scheduled to be cut).

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

wilderness and wildlife protection
Wilderness and Wildlife Protection
  • Forest products industry employs about 150,000 people in the Pacific NW
  • Adds nearly $7 billion annually to the economy.
  • Recreation has 16x jobs.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

spotted owl controversy
Spotted Owl controversy
  • 1989 environmentalists sued USFS over plans to clear-cut remaining old-growth forests,
  • Argued spotted owls were endangered and must be protected.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

spotted owl controversy30
Spotted Owl controversy

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

spotted owl controversy31
Spotted Owl controversy
  • Timber industry claims 40,000 jobs lost.
    • Environmentalists dispute number.
    • Other reasons
      • Mechanization
      • Clear-cutting
      • Export of logs to Japan

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

harvest methods
Harvest Methods
  • Clear-Cutting - Every tree in a given area is cut regardless of size.
    • Fast and efficient, but wastes small trees, increases erosion, and eliminates wildlife habitat.
    • Coppicing - Encourage stump-sprouts.
    • Seed-Tree - Leave few mature trees.
    • Shelterwood - Remove in series of cuts.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

harvest methods33
Harvest Methods
  • Strip Cutting - Harvesting all trees in a narrow corridor.
  • Selective Cutting - A small percentage of mature trees are taken in 10-20 year rotation.
    • Can retain many characteristics of mature, old-growth forests.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

menominee sustainable forestry
Menominee Sustainable Forestry

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

below cost salvage sales
Below-Cost Salvage Sales
  • USFS has historically regarded its primary job as providing a steady supply of cheap logs to the nation’s timber industry.
    • Often, timber prices have not been enough to repay management costs.
      • Hidden subsidy to timber industry.
        • USFS builds roads in order for timber companies to extract trees.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

slide37
FIRE

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

fires caused by poor logging practices
Fires caused by poor logging practices

Wisconsin, 1871:

Deadliest forest

fire in recorded

world history kills

1,200-1,500

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

southeast asian rainforest fires 1997
Southeast AsianRainforest Fires, 1997

Palm oil plantations

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

mexico central america rainforest fires 1998
Mexico/Central AmericaRainforest Fires, 1998

Cover for illegal logging

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

brazilian amazon rainforest fires 1999
Brazilian AmazonRainforest Fires, 1999

Land-hungry farmers

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

fire management
Fire Management
  • Recent studies show fire plays an important role in many forested ecosystems.
    • Eliminating fire has allowed shrubs and small trees to fill some forest floors.
      • As woody debris accumulates, chances of a major fire increase.
    • Often, attempts to stop fires cause more ecological damage than the actual fires.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

fire suppression wisconsin river bluffs at sauk city 1870s 1990s
Fire Suppression:Wisconsin River Bluffs at Sauk City, 1870s-1990s

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

fire management44
Fire Management
  • For 30 years, the NPS has followed a policy of allowing some natural fires to burn, and even setting some prescribed fires.
    • But after 70 years of fire suppression, fuel has now built up to a point where fires can easily escape “control.”
      • The dilemma is how to remove excess fuel while protecting property, human life, and forest ecosystems.

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.

yellowstone fires 1988
Yellowstone Fires, 1988

Cunningham - Cunningham - Saigo: Environmental Science 7th Ed.