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Forestry. Tree terms. Saw log- 6-8 inches for soft wood, 10-12 inches for hardwoods. Cut types. More Cut Types. Selection cut- promotes uneven aged stands Selective cut- removes oldest, most valuable trees, bad for forest growth Shelterwood retains 30-70% of canopy

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Forestry


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tree terms
Tree terms

Saw log- 6-8 inches for soft wood, 10-12 inches for hardwoods

more cut types
More Cut Types
  • Selection cut- promotes uneven aged stands
  • Selective cut- removes oldest, most valuable trees, bad for forest growth
  • Shelterwood retains 30-70% of canopy
  • Clear cutting is good for PA forests because it allows sun loving trees like black cherry and oak to regenerate
fires
Fires
  • 98% ignited by humans, mostly burning debris
pa forestry
PA Forestry
  • 30% of PA economy is based on forestry
  • 17 million Acres of forest cover, almost 60 % of the State
  • Produces more than a billion board feet of hardwood and three-quarters of a million cords of pulpwood
  • Most of PA white pine & hemlock forests cut by early 1900s
  • Now even aged mixed hardwoods
  • 90% of PA trees are hardwoods
forest affect on water
Forest Affect on Water
  • Incepts & infiltrates water
  • Trees Consume Storm Water
  • Removes Pollutants
  • Phytoremediation – examples trees in parking lots
  • Riparian Buffers
forestry problems
Forestry Problems
  • Skidding is the process of dragging logs from the stumps to a central location, called a log landing, where they are loaded onto trucks and transported to the mill.
  • Log landings create large areas of unprotected, exposed soil
  • Roads disturb soil, increase erosion
  • Sewage removal
  • Pesticide use
more facts
More facts
  • Trees are plants that can reach at least 15 ft tall
  • Forest is land with at least 10% trees
forest fragmentation
Forest Fragmentation
  • Increases spread of invasives
  • Decreases mobility and habitat size of natives
mixed oak forests
Mixed-oak forests
  • Contain primarily the oaks; including northern red oak, chestnut oak, white oak, scarlet oak; along with the maples, yellow-poplar, ash, hickories, and miscellaneous deciduous species.
  • The understory vegetation is mountain laurel and blueberry.
northern hardwood forests
Northern hardwood forests
  • Contain primarily black cherry, the maples, American beech, the birches
  • Understory composition often comprised of ferns, striped maple and beech brush.
  • Hemlock and eastern white pine are common to both forest types and both produce valuable wood products
forest types
Forest Types
  • Forest Openings- herbaceous rather than woody growth; insects, small mammals
  • Brush stage- small, dense, woody vegetation; browse and fruit, nesting cover
  • Pole timber- less wildlife value, more timber value
  • Mast/Mature timber- (mast is the fruit of woody plants) high protein and fat for animals,
tree types
Tree Types
  • Large old- nesting cavities, roosting, mast
  • Snags and cavity- dead but standing, perches, cavities
  • Evergreens- cover from cold and snow
  • Vines, shrubs, fruit- form understory
  • Riparian- form fish and wildlife habitats, act as sponges
special habitats
Special Habitats
  • Wetlands- most productive, but least common in PA; greatest biodiversity
  • Seep Springs- Snow free in winter, providing water and food
  • Cliffs- secure nesting and unique habitats
  • Caves- shelter, nesting, and roosting
factors the increase extinction
Factors the Increase Extinction
  • Specializers
  • Sought by People
  • Rare
  • Codependent
  • Top of the Food Chain
  • Low Reproduction Rate