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Star evolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

marcella-quintin
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Star evolution

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  1. Star evolution Chapters 17 & 18 (Yes, we skip chap. 16, star birth)

  2. Goals & Learning Objectives • Learn some simple astronomical terminology • Develop a sense of what scientists know about the overall universe, its constituents, and our location • Describe stellar evolution • Contrast the life history of a low-mass star with the life history of a high-mass star. • Explain how black holes are formed and their effect on their surrounding environment.

  3. 3 star groups (p. 565) • 3 categories of stars: • Intermediate similar to both high and low mass. Book focuses more on similarities with high mass (in section 17.1). • One major difference: __________________________ ___________________________________

  4. Which star group has the highest core pressure? • Low mass • Intermediate mass • High mass

  5. Which star group has the hottest core temperature? • Low mass • Intermediate mass • High mass So what can you conclude about the fusion rate? Luminosity? Which stars live longer? Why?

  6. The end of the Sun • Eventually ________________________. • What did the core need fusion for? • What will happen to it as a result of ___________? • What happens to __________________________? • What happens to the temperature of the material surrounding the core? • CLICKER QUESTION (next slide). • What are the surrounding layers made of? • What can happen if ________________________? • For Sun, this takes ___________________of years.

  7. Is there Hydrogen outside the Sun’s core? • Yes • No

  8. _______________________ • In fact, the outer layers get hotter than _________. • What does that tell us about ______________rate? • What should we observe as a result? CLICKER • The light “gets stuck” and pushes the outer layers out. • What happens to gas when you _______________? • Color of outside? What kind of star do we have? • What is the core made of? • What is the structure? • See fig. 17.4 page 568

  9. Star becomes ______ luminous • More • Less

  10. What’s happening to the mass of the HELIUM core as the shell “burns”? • Increasing • Decreasing • Staying the same

  11. Inside the core… • _______________________ • Core _____________________ • More hot helium dumped onto core • _________________________________from shrinking. • _____________stars: ________________________________ • Read section 16.3, page 557 and S4.4 pp. 481-483 • ______________________ • Intermediate & High mass _______________ thermal & _____________. • _______________________turns on at 100 million K • Low mass: whole _____________simultaneously: _____________ • Intermediate & high mass: “regular” fusion

  12. Next phase • Structure of the star now? • Figure 17.5 • This lasts until … • What happens to the core? • Low & intermediate mass: ____________until ___________ ______________stops it. Focus on that now. • [for High mass: ___________________________] • Back to low mass: What’s the core made of? • Shrinks to size of Earth. • What happens outside the core? • Temp, composition

  13. __________________burning • Not stable • Outer layers ________________ • Outer layers _______________ • See pictures around the planetarium • Cat’s eye, Butterfly, Ring: all “________________________” • See also figure 17.7 – more examples • NOT related to planets • What’s in the center of a planetary nebula? • End of low & intermediate mass stars… • Show interactive figure 17.4

  14. Do low mass stars like the Sun fuse Carbon into anything? • Yes • No

  15. If the universe contained only low mass stars, would there be elements heavier than carbon? • Yes • No

  16. High mass star differences • ____________________________________ • Gas & thermal pressure always stronger • Can fuse carbon with helium into Oxygen • Can fuse Oxygen with helium into neon • Etc. (magnesium, silicon, sulfur) • When core hot enough, can fuse carbon with carbon, carbon with oxygen … • Etc. • Big picture: carbon and stuff fuses until you get to a core made of … • Iron (Fe on the periodic table, #26, middle section, top row, see page A-13, Appendix C)

  17. Iron • Most stable nucleus • _____________________________________ • _________________energy (uses instead of ___________) • True for everything heavier than iron, too. • Fission USES energy • True for most things lighter than iron, too. • Iron is the last element made in stable reactions in stars • Look at the periodic table on page A-13 • Find iron • Gold = Au. Mercury = Hg. Xenon = Xe. Are these made in stable stars?

  18. What we see • See figure 17.12, page 575 for onion skin model • See HR diagram on p. 575 (fig. 17.13) • Runs out of core fuel, goes right • Next fuel turns on, goes back left • Repeat until core is made of Iron

  19. After the Iron core forms • Iron core __________________ • ________________than ________________________pressure • _________________________more than they can tolerate • Electrons merge with protons • Result: _______________ • And ___________________! • (Fly straight out! We observe them first!) • ________more electron degeneracy _______________support. • Rapidly shrinks: ___________________________in 1 second! • Lots of energy released. Turn on neutron degeneracy pressure. • ___________________________. Demo • ______________________________. Leaves behind core • Core is made of … Called … • Interactive figure 17.12 & 17.17 (crab nebula in 1054) • (If the core is too heavy for neutron degeneracy pressure…)

  20. Production of Elements • High mass stars make up to _________ • _______________________made _________ __________________ • Lots of neutrons around • They merge with nuclei quickly (r-process) • Eventually nucleus decays to something stable • Like _________________________________, etc.

  21. Stellar remnants • End states for stars • Low mass stars become … • Intermediate mass also become … (Oxygen) • & high mass stars become … • The highest mass stars (O & B) become …

  22. Which stars should begin with the most heavy elements inside them? • The stars that formed earliest • The most recently formed stars

  23. Summary of star death • When fusion runs out, core ____ & _____ • Shell fusing occurs. Many shells possible. • Core fusion can turn on. • What’s different for low mass & high mass? • Which elements get made in low & high? • What’s special about iron? • Degeneracy pressure (electron & neutron) • What, where, why • Possible end states; which stars make them • RG  PN  WD, RG  SN  NS or BH

  24. Chapter 18: Stellar remnants • The next few slides are material from chap 18.

  25. White dwarfs • Radius • ______________________________________ • What kind of pressure resists gravity? • _________________________________pressure • Temperature • Start ______________. [Clicker question] • Cool down (__________________eventually) • Composition: • Usually _____________________ • sometimes oxygen (intermediate mass) or helium (very low mass) • Gravity: teaspoon weighs _______________!

  26. What kind of light would a white dwarf emit most when it is first detectable? • X-rays • Visible light • Infrared • Radio waves

  27. White dwarf limit • Observed around _______________ • Can be up to ______________ • If heavier, _________________________strongly enough to resist gravity. [they’d have to move faster than c] • What happens if you add mass to a 1.4 Msun white dwarf? • Where could extra mass come from? • _____________________________! • _________________________________ (“Type 1a”) • Are a “standard candle”. What’s that? • Leaves NOTHING behind, _________________________ • LESS VIOLENT: Nova if add small amount of stuff to lower mass WD.

  28. What you’d see through a telescope Ignore the spikes X-ray image & visible image superimposed Sirius binary system

  29. Neutron stars • Composition? • Gigantic nuclei. • No empty space like in atoms (99.999% empty) • Paper clip of neutrons weighs as much as ______________! • Dropping brick: energy = an atom _____________! • As stuff falls onto a neutron star, ________________________! • Mass • Observed: __________________________________ • Can be up to _______________(we don’t know exact upper limit) • Any heavier & ____________________________strongly enough to resist gravity. • Radius: City sized (_______________). WD = _______miles! • What kind of pressure resists gravity? • _______________________pressure • Neat trivia: Escape speed = ½ c. (Gravity very strong!)

  30. Pulsars • See figures 18.7 & 18.8 • Jocelyn Bell • Should’ve won the Nobel Prize • Rapidly spinning neutron stars • 1800 known pulsars, pulsing radio, but some also emit other types: visible + X-rays and sometimes gamma. • 1 pulsar, discovered in October 2008 emits only gamma • See figure 18.9 • Is it possible to be a neutron star that’s not a pulsar? How about vice versa? [2 clicker Q’s] • Spin up to 600 times per SECOND! (Show movie!) • Larger objects would break apart

  31. Is it possible to be a neutron star but not a pulsar, as seen on Earth? • Yes • No

  32. Is it possible to be a pulsar but not a neutron star, as seen on Earth? • Yes • No

  33. Black holes – Remind me to reveal the information as your questions are answered

  34. Chap. 18, #18: If a black hole 10 times as massive as our Sun were lurking just beyond Pluto’s orbit, we’d have no way of knowing it was there. • True • False

  35. Summary of stellar “graveyard” • White dwarf properties: mass, radius, pressure • White dwarf limit, results of exceeding it • Neutron star properties • Pulsars • Black holes • Falling in • Gravity far away • How we can find them