Indigenous pedagogies transformational practices Dr. Sheila COTE-MEEK Dr. Taima MOEKE-PICKERING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Indigenous pedagogies transformational practices Dr. Sheila COTE-MEEK Dr. Taima MOEKE-PICKERING

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    1. Indigenous pedagogies & transformational practices Dr. Sheila COTE-MEEK & Dr. Taima MOEKE-PICKERING Cairns, December 2010 Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.

    2. Understanding Colonization Concerns the Land-quest for resources, setting up colonies for economic benefit (Memmi 1965; Said 193) Requires specific ideology (Memmi 1965; Said 1993) one rooted in racism and reduced Indigenous peoples to inferior, subordinate & dependent It is Violent- Fanon (1963) links colonialism and violence stating it is an intentional act committed on the body of colonized peoples. Satre (1993), on violence in the colonies, Violence in the colonies does not only have for its aim the keeping of these enslaved men at arms length; it seeks to dehumanize them. Everything will be done to wipe out their traditions, to substitute their language for theirs and to destroy their culture (p.15) It is Ongoing-land is still contested, ie:Teme Aguama Anishnabai original lands 4,000 sq miles now reduced to 1 sq mile; structural violence is evident, ie: poverty, poor health, lack of access to to clean water, nutrition, housing, and face ongoing daily racism

    3. Impact of colonization Violence a consequence of colonization, forced assimilation, and cultural genocide; the learned negative, cumulative, multi-generational actions, values, beliefs, attitudes and behavioural patterns practice by one or more people that weaken and destroy the harmony & wellbeing of an Aboriginal individual, family, extended family, community or nationhood (Maracle & Craig, 1993) Patterns of ongoing violence persist Ethnostress negative impact of ongoing domination resulting in psychological and emotional distress (Antone, Miller, & Myers, 1986 Cajete 1994;) Historical trauma-trauma understood as a result from specific persistent & life altering experience (Erickson, 1995) which includes colonization Duran & Duran (1995), Locust (1998) & Bastien et al (1999): identify psychological intergenerational impact of colonization as wounding Wesley-Esquimaux & Smolweski (2004) examined grief & trauma and links intergenerational

    4. Links to indigenous educational agenda These constructs were utilized to inform data analysis from our interviews Education (mainstream) for Indigenous peoples has always been and continues to be part of the colonial regimeone that is marked by violence, abuse and a regime that has had devastating consequences for Indigenous peoples (ie: Residential schools, Language & culture suppression and loss)

    5. Transformative Approaches conducive to indigenous education DECOLONIZATION Self-Determination & Education Indigenous research, Indigenous worldviews, & Indigenous pedagogies (Circles, Medicine wheel, Nga kete e toru) Indigenous well-being (applying Indigenous cultural practices) Critical analysis & Anti-colonial framework is important includes counter hegemonic practices, understandings of colonization through a critical lens, alliances with Indigenous communities etc. Students Shifting attitudes & practices & strengthening identities

    6. RACISM Aboriginal profs & students constrained with negotiating culture and identity Contend with being called upon to produce culture in the classroom or risk having their authenticity as an Aboriginal person called into question Find themselves called to be native informants Most profound finding was the extent & pervasiveness of racism that Aboriginal students confront and negotiate Negotiations especially profound and painful in mixed classrooms where the narrative of ongoing colonial violence is discussed Range of emotive responses inc: sadness, anger, shame and embarrassment Also have a range of strategies to resist ongoing colonialism and racism not self-identifying, accessing safe places including supports, raising critical consciousness, and acts of active resistance

    7. Importance for leading an Indigenous education agenda Indigenous-based programs assist to affirm Indigenous aspirations for self-determination and are sites that center Indigenous worldviews. A decolonization analysis deepens students understanding about the impact of imperialism, colonialism, racism and post colonial issues. Indigenous programs encourage students to make positive changes for themselves, for their communities, and for their professions. Indigenous faculty promote inclusive Indigenous pedagogy in the classroom that incorporates culture, encourages personal introspection, builds cultural and professional skills, and teaches critical education. Indigenous pedagogies teach students to counter negative narratives while instilling a critical analysis of decolonization and colonization. Decenters western academic control over Indigenous education Each of the transformative approaches just identified contribute to leading an indigenous agenda by the following points.Each of the transformative approaches just identified contribute to leading an indigenous agenda by the following points.

    8. Take home messages Indigenous programs contribute to the continuity of Indigenous culture and wellbeing of their communities and play a vital role in advancing Indigenous education priorities Professors must understand and acknowledge through their pedagogy that Indigenous students come to the classrooms burdened by racialized constructions and likely live in a state of ongoing colonial violence. Professors must take up this challenge without contributing to further victimization. Professors must be prepared to engage and confront racism in demonstrable ways in the classroom by taking a firm stand against any acts of racism and violence, whether covert or overt. To do otherwise is to perpetuate violence. Professors who are teaching difficult material must engage in holistic pedagogical approaches. To expect students only to focus on one aspect of their being, the mind, in the classroom is to perpetuate that the body and spirit are of no matter. To perpetuate this disconnection is to run a high risk of perpetuating ongoing colonial violence Professors must engage in creating spaces where Aboriginal students can connect with other Aboriginal students. Supportive environments are critical in negating the traumatic effects of living in an environment that is inundated by racism. Making policy changes in mainstream education imperative (hiring, research ethics, student supports etc.) Indigenous educational practices re-centers Indigenous pedagogies, theories and practices