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Decompression - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Decompression

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  1. Decompression DEC/1 May 2007

  2. We will cover • What is Decompression? • Causes of Decompression Sickness • When and how symptoms occur • Treatment DEC/2

  3. What is Decompression? • Reduction in ambient pressure • Occurs when a diver ascends from depth • Tissue absorption rates • Gas may remain in some tissues longer • Bubble formation • Other names DEC/3

  4. 1 Bar 0.8 0.2 2 Bar 1.6 0.4 3 Bar 2.4 0.6 4 Bar 3.2 0.8 5 Bar 4.0 1.0 Absolute Pressure Partial Pressures Depth PN2 PO2 0 10M 20M 30M 40M DEC/4

  5. How does the gas enter the tissues? • Alveoli in the lungs • Bloodstream • Body Tissues • Amount depends on pressure and duration at pressure DEC/5

  6. Saturation Depth Nitrogen Level in Tissues 0 M Low High 10 M 20 M 30 M 40 M Time DEC/6

  7. Bubbling Out A S C E N T Supersaturated Saturated Undersaturated Supersaturation Saturation Level of N2 Diver’s Level of N2 Depth 0 M 10 M 20 M 30 M DEC/7

  8. Precautions • Standard rate of ascent • Decompression Dive Tables DEC/8

  9. Factors Affecting D.C.S. • Alcohol • Smoking • Dehydration • Fatty tissues • Fatigue • Drugs • Medication • Cold water • Heavy exercise DEC/9

  10. When do Symptoms Occur? • Rarely occur immediately • 50% begin less than one hour after surfacing • 90% occur within 6 hours • Small percentage over 24 hours DEC/10

  11. Symptoms of Decompression Sickness • Skin • Discolouration • Itching • Joints • Ache • Pain (sometimes severe) DEC/11

  12. Symptoms of Decompression Sickness • Nervous System • Behaviour • Numbness • Weakness • Balance • Paralysis DEC/11a

  13. Symptoms of Decompression Sickness • Heart and Lungs • Low blood pressure • Shock • Cyanosis • Vision • Double vision DEC/11b

  14. Recompression Chamber Treatment • First Aid DEC/12

  15. First Aid • Lie victim down • Give 100% oxygen • Keep warm and reassure • Treat for shock • CPR if necessary DEC/13

  16. Summary • What is Decompression? • Causes of Decompression Sickness • When and how symptoms occur • Treatment DEC/14

  17. Questions

  18. Body tissues absorb gas at : (a) The same rate (b) Different rates Question 1

  19. Body tissues absorb gas at : (a) The same rate (b) Different rates Question 1

  20. The gas which causes decompression sickness is: (a) Oxygen (b) Carbon Dioxide (c) Nitrogen Question 2

  21. The gas which causes decompression sickness is: (a) Oxygen (b) Carbon Dioxide (c) Nitrogen Question 2

  22. What percentage of decompression sickness usually occurs within 1 hour of surfacing ? (a) 35% (b) 50% (c) 70% (d) 90% Question 3

  23. What percentage of decompression sickness usually occurs within 1 hour of surfacing ? (a) 35% (b) 50% (c) 70% (d) 90% Question 3

  24. Symptoms of The Bends include : (a) Skin discolouration (b) Numbness or weakness (c) Imbalance or paralysis (d) Shock (e) All of the above Question 4

  25. Symptoms of The Bends include : (a) Skin discolouration (b) Numbness or weakness (c) Imbalance or paralysis (d) Shock (e) All of the above Question 4

  26. Treatment of decompression sickness is : (a) Oxygen (b) Recompression chamber (c) In-water recompression (d) Strong drink i.e. brandy Question 5

  27. Treatment of decompression sickness is : (a) Oxygen (b) Recompression chamber (c) In-water recompression (d) Strong drink i.e. brandy Question 5